CH5_ An Intro to Carbohydrates.docx - Carbohydrates(CH2O)\u2013 sugar molecules made from monosaccharides(single sugar units made up of C H and

CH5_ An Intro to Carbohydrates.docx -...

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Carbohydrates (CH2O)– sugar molecules made from monosaccharides (single sugar units); made up of C, H, and O (carbon-hydrate) - Disaccharides (two sugar units) , polysaccharides (many sugar units) 5.1 SUGARS AS MONOMERS WHAT DISTINGUISHES ONE MONOSACCHARIDE FROM ANOTHER?: Presence of carbonyl group: - Aldose– carbonyl at the end of monosaccharide - Ketose– carbonyl at the middle of sugar chain Number of carbon atoms present: - Triose– three-carbon sugars - Pentose– five carbon sugars - Hexose– six carbon sugars Spatial arrangement: - Spatial arrangement of hydroxyl group: can cause different functions - In aqueous solutions, sugar will form into a ring structure where carbonyl groups bond to a carbon with a hydroxyl group 5.2 THE STRUCTURE OF DISACCHARIDES
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- Structure and functions of large carbohydrates depends on the monomers and how they’re linked– monomers can be identical or different - Monosaccharides polymerize during condensation which forms a glycosidic linkage (covalent bond) between 2 hydroxyl groups;
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