American Attitudes in the Sporting Mega-Event Spectacle_ National.pdf - Clemson University TigerPrints All Theses 5-2015 American Attitudes in the

American Attitudes in the Sporting Mega-Event Spectacle_ National.pdf

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Clemson UniversityTigerPrintsAll ThesesTheses5-2015American Attitudes in the Sporting Mega-EventSpectacle: Nationalism and Self-Identity in the2014 FIFA World CupRobert Brady BelairClemson UniversityFollow this and additional works at:This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Theses at TigerPrints. It has been accepted for inclusion in All Theses by an authorizedadministrator of TigerPrints. For more information, please contact[email protected].Recommended CitationBelair, Robert Brady, "American Attitudes in the Sporting Mega-Event Spectacle: Nationalism and Self-Identity in the 2014 FIFAWorld Cup" (2015).All Theses. 2086.
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AMERICAN ATTIDUES IN THE SPORTING MEGA-EVENT SPECTACLE: NATIONALISM AND SELF-IDENTITY IN THE 2014 FIFA WORLD CUP A Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of Clemson University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts Communication, Technology and Society by Robert Brady Belair May 2015 Accepted by: Dr. Jimmy Sanderson, Committee Chair Dr. John Spinda Dr. Darren Linvill
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ii ABSTRACT Previous research has shown that the televised consumption of sporting mega-events, like the Olympics and FIFA World Cup, has significant cultivation effects on viewers. Past studies have also focused on fans’ identification to their home nation during these international sporting competitions in terms of self-categorization. To measure relationships between identification to the U.S. Men’s National Team with FIFA World Cup viewing and nationalistic attitudes, a total of 119 American participants were surveyed in the one-month period following the 2014 World Cup Final. Participants responded to 29 items based on a seven-point Likert scale pertaining to five measures: patriotism, nationalism, smugness, internationalism, and identification. The number of U.S. matches viewed was significantly correlated with identification, but not with patriotism, nationalism, or smugness. A multivariate linear regression revealed that 6 variables (age, amount of exposure to U.S. matches, patriotism, nationalism, smugness, and internationalism) were significant predictors of identification. In addition, amount of exposure to U.S. matches and patriotism were significant predictors of identification when controlling for all other variables. Theoretical extrapolations of cultivation effects and self-categorization are offered, as well as the limitation and directions for future research.
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iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE ....................................................................................................................i ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................ii LIST OF TABLES ..........................................................................................................ivCHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................1 II.LITERATURE REVIEW ..............................................................................4History of Soccer in the United States .....................................................4 Sporting Mega-Events ...........................................................................10 Nationalism ............................................................................................15 III.THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ...............................................................20Cultivation Theory .................................................................................20 Team Identification ................................................................................22 Self-Categorization Theory ....................................................................25 IV.HYPOTHESES/RESEARCH QUESTIONS ...............................................27V. METHOD ....................................................................................................30 Data Collection ......................................................................................30 Measures ................................................................................................30 Patriotism ......................................................................................31 Nationalism ...................................................................................31 Smugness ......................................................................................31 Internationalism ............................................................................32 Identification .................................................................................32 Data Analysis .........................................................................................33 VI.RESULTS ....................................................................................................37
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ivTable of Contents(Continued) VII.
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