Midterm .docx - Running Head MIDTERM CHILD DEVELOPMENT 1 Mkidterm Brendan White Southern New Hampshire University CHILD DEVELOPMENT 2 Child Development

Midterm .docx - Running Head MIDTERM CHILD DEVELOPMENT 1...

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Running Head: MIDTERM: CHILD DEVELOPMENT 1 Mkidterm Brendan White Southern New Hampshire University
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CHILD DEVELOPMENT 2 Child Development Are emotions determined by nature and pre-programmed biologically? Are infants emotions developed through stimulation and conditioning, or a combination of two? The determinants of emotions are through both nature and pre-programming biologically. In the Differential Emotions Theory, basics emotions are essentially adult-like, present at birth, and biologically innate. Infants do not know how to express them, other than the universal emotion of crying ( Keenan, Evans & Crowley, 2016). As they grow, they learn how to express different emotions. The emotions of the infants are developed through simulation and conditioning. Infants learn to communicate with adults through operant conditioning. For example, as the mother holds her child, smiles, and talks to her, the child will eventually pick up that she/he can talk and smile back to the mother. There has to be stimulation for the operant conditioning to take effect ( Nelson & Mondloch, 2019). There can not be any conditioning if there is no stimulation. Infants learn through observing the surroundings and through mimicking the adults. That is how they learn to walk, feed themselves, and talk. Also, infants cannot acquire any of these skills if there is no interaction.
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