BIOMASS.docx - BIOMASS Biomass is organic matter derived from living or recently living organisms Biomass can be used as a source of energy and it most

BIOMASS.docx - BIOMASS Biomass is organic matter derived...

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BIOMASS: Biomass is organic matter derived from living, or recently living organisms. Biomass can be used as a source of energy and it most often refers to plants or plant-based materials which are not used for food or feed, and are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass (Plant Dry Matter). As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. BIOMASS SOURCES Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the time when people began burning wood to make fire. Even today, biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. Biomass is all biologically-produced matter based in carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The estimated biomass production in the world is 104.9 pentagrams (104.9 * 1015 g - about 105 billion metric tons) of carbon per year, about half in the ocean and half on land. Examples : forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. Wood energy is derived by using lignocellulosic biomass (second-generation biofuel) as fuel. Harvested wood may be used directly as a fuel or collected from wood waste streams to be processed into pellet (or other forms of fuels say pellet guns). The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or “black liquor,” a waste product from processes of the pulp, paper and paperboard industry. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including bio fuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants.
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