Psych Operant Conditioning.pdf - ❖ Classical vs...

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Classical vs. Instrumental/Operant Behavior Classical conditioning (Pavlovian) Behavior Involuntary Reflexive Elicited by a stimulus Not influenced by the consequences of behavior Instrumental/Operant Behavior Voluntary Purposive Can be elicited by a stimulus (Stimulus → Behavior) And leads to another stimulus (Behavior → Stimulus) Influenced by the consequences of behavior Edward Thorndike The Law of Effect “Of several responses made to the same situation, closely followed by satisfaction...they will be more likely to occur” “Of several responses made to the same situation, closely followed by discomfort...they will be less likely to occur” Instrumental Conditioning Process in which the environment constrains the opportunity for reward and a specific response will produce the reward The behavior is instrumental in producing the event that follows Not a goal, because its not a…. Burrhus Frederick Skinner Operant Conditioning Process in which there are no environmental constraints on the opportunity for reinforcement and a specific response will produce the reinforcer The behavior operates on the environment to produce the event that follows Cumulative Recorder To examine how response rate changes over time (learning), Skinner invented the cumulative recorder A cumulative record plots the cumulative number of responses made as a function of time Slope of the line corresponds to response rate Operant Response BF Said Defined by its environmental “operation” or function Behaviors are considered to be the same operant response if they have the same effect on the environment Any way the lever is pressed (butt pushing it, actually pushing it, etc) that results in reward is the operant response
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Defined by what it does, not what the behavior actually looks like Lead to a stimulus or outcome We can learn how to manipulate our environment Reinforcer Skinner Any stimulus (ie, event or consequence) following behavior that increases the probability will occur again Behavior is reinforced, not the subject Punisher Skinner ANy stimulus (ie, event or consequence) following behavior that decreases the probability that the behavior will occur again Response Strength Behavior is reinforced or strengthened (not the organism) Any feature of a behavior (e.g., its frequency, intensity, duration, persistence, form, etc) can be strengthened so long as a reinforcer is made contingent (dependent) on that particular aspect of the behavior That is, if you want to strengthen variability or creativity, you must reinforce that aspect of behavior Page and Neuringer (1985) Pigeons had to peck an 8-response sequenceL Blue Blue Blue Blue… Blue Red Blue Red… Blue Blue Red Blue… 1000 possible sequences Reinforcers were delivered only if the sequence pecked was different from the
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