Chapter 7-9 RESEARCH METHODS.pptx - CHAPTER 7 Measurement of Variables Scaling Reliability Validity Business Research Methods Kuala Lumpur SJ Learning

# Chapter 7-9 RESEARCH METHODS.pptx - CHAPTER 7 Measurement...

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CHAPTER 7 Measurement of Variables: Scaling, Reliability, Validity Dr. Sami 1 Business Research Methods. Kuala Lumpur: SJ Learning. Borges, W. G., Ng, S. I., Chew, B. C., Lau, T. C., Derek, O. L. T., Devika, N., … Mohd Noor, M. (2016). Research Methods for Business A Skill-Building Approach Sixth Edition UMA SEKARAN AND ROGER BOUGIE , 2013
1. Identify the variable,, my variable is the facilities in UUM. 2. than we operationalized this variable to its dimensions. 3. Identify the items for every dimension or variable 4. Identify the scale for these items Wi-Fi strongly agree agree normal disagree strongly disagree It is stable 1 2 3 4 5 Wide coverage 1 2 3 4 5 It is fast 1 2 3 4 5 Bus strongly agree agree normal disagree strongly disagree It is on time 1 2 3 4 5 Bus is Wide coverage 1 2 3 4 5 Bus is comfortable 1 2 3 4 5 Rooms strongly agree agree normal disagree strongly disagree It is wide enough 1 2 3 4 5 Has good air-condition 1 2 3 4 5 Convenient mattress 1 2 3 4 5 items items review scale Dr. Sami 2
Scale Scale: It is a tool or mechanism by which individuals are distinguished as how they differ from one another on the variables of interest to our study. Choose the scale is depend on how many information we need to obtain about the variable undertaken,, Dr. Sami 3
Basic types of scales 1. Nominal Scale general detail 2. Ordinal Scale more detail 3. Interval Scale specific 4. Ratio Scale more specific Dr. Sami 4 DETAILS
Nominal Scale A nominal scale is one that allows the researcher to assign subjects to certain categories or groups. Use to differentiate the categories only What is your department? O Marketing O Maintenance O Finance O Production O Servicing O Personnel O Sales O Public Relations O Accounting What is your gender? O Male O Female For the gender we categorized into two groups and we assign number for each male 1 and female 2 to label each of these groups,, the nominal scale allows us only to qualitatively distinguish groups by categorizing them into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive sets The information generated from nominal scale help us in calculating the frequency of male and female in our sample respondents Dr. Sami 5
Nominal Scale Dr. Sami 6
Ordinal Scale Ordinal scale: not only categorizes variables in such a way as to denote differences among various categories, it also rank-orders categories in some meaningful way. Use to differentiate the categories and provide information on how respondent distinguish them by ranking-order them. Example: what is the problem you face in UUM? You may sign number 1 for the most important than 2 to the less, 3 more less and so on ,,,, What is the highest level of education you have completed? O Less than High School O High School/GED Equivalent O College Degree O Masters Degree O Doctoral Degree Dr. Sami 7
Ordinal Scale Dr. Sami 8
Interval Scale Interval scale: whereas the nominal scale allows us only to qualitatively distinguish groups by categorizing them into mutually exclusive and collectively

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