Topic7-AbnormalPsych(Students).ppt - Psychological Disorders Dr Paul Wehr Agenda \u2022 Announcements \u2013 Long-answer test 3 November 22 \u2013 Final Exam

Topic7-AbnormalPsych(Students).ppt - Psychological...

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Psychological Disorders Dr. Paul Wehr
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Agenda Announcements: Long-answer test 3: November 22. Final Exam: Tuesday December 10 th , 7:30pm – 9:30pm. Lecture Topics: Drugs, Psychological Disorders, Psychological Treatment. Assigned Reading: Social Psychology, Health Psychology, and Salvatore & Shelton. Major Clinical Syndromes: What syndromes have the highest prevalence? What disorders have the most debilitating symptoms? What risk factors predict a syndrome?
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The Medical Model Superstition: Possession: exorcism. Witchcraft: torture. Affliction: prayer. Medical Model: Analogy by which abnormal behaviour is treated as disease. Mental disease; psychological disorder; psychopathology. Diagnosis: classification. Etiology: cause. Prognosis: forecast. Might be inappropriate. Fits some conditions better than others. Medical issue or moral/social issue? Ignores function of behaviour.
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DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by American Psychiatric Association. Rapid expansion of mental disorders: DSM-I (1952): 100 disorders. DSM-IV-TR (2000): 400 disorders. Result of mental health industry & U.S. health insurance? DSM V (May 2013): about 400 disorders, but diagnostic criteria is lower.
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Criticisms of DSM Over-diagnosis: 44% of adult population could be diagnosed with a disorder in their lifetime. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): 5 – 10%. Lowering of thresholds in DSM 5. Diagnostic Labeling: Self-fulfilling prophecy. Confirmation bias. Many “disorders” reflect normal behaviour: ADHD; Mathematics disorder; Removal of Bereavement Exclusion for depression. Discarded diagnoses: Childhood masturbation disorder, Homosexuality, & caffeine-induced sleep disorder.
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Signs & Symptoms DSM treats disorders as independent entities with clear boundaries. But… Disorders often appear as continuums (e.g., schizophrenia & bipolar disorder). Co-morbidity is predictable. Signs & symptoms overlap several disorders. Psychopathological signs and symptoms can be described as variations of normal adaptive mechanisms. Hypofunctioning: e.g., depressed mood. Hyperfunctioning: e.g., mania. Dysregulation: e.g., hallucinations. Observable signs (e.g., avoiding eye contact). More reliable? Observable signs (e.g., avoiding eye contact). More reliable? Patient’s subjective experience (e depressed mo Patient’s subjective experience (e depressed mo
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Gender Dysphoria A strong and persistent cross-gender ______________ not merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex.
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