Topic4-BioPsych(Students).ppt - Neurons Chemical Messengers Dr Paul Wehr Agenda \u2022 Announcements \u2022 Biological Basis of Behaviour \u2013 \u2013 \u2013 \u2013 What

Topic4-BioPsych(Students).ppt - Neurons Chemical Messengers...

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Neurons & Chemical Messengers Dr. Paul Weh r
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Agenda Announcements: Biological Basis of Behaviour: What is the Nervous System made up of? How do cells in the Nervous System communicate? How is the Nervous System organized? How is evolution related to psychology?
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Introduction Neuroscientists: structure and organization of the brain. Nerve cells (Neurons) are the basic unit that make up the nervous system. Nervous system: Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Action Potential: Electrical Signal. Chemical messengers: neurotransmitters.
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Neurons Nerve Cells relay information (_________________) throughout the nervous system. Send messages to other neurons, ________________________. Receive messages from other neurons and ______________. Integrate information. ______ Cells support nerve cells: Compose 90% of all cells in nervous system. Provide nutrients. Remove cellular debris. Insulate neurons from each other. ___________ facilitate formation of _________.
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Structure of a Neuron _________________contains biochemical machinery. __________ receive information from other neurons or sensory organs. _____ connects neuron to other neurons further downstream. _______________insulates axons and increases conduction rate. _____________________: loss of sensation, paralysis, poor coordination. Hippocampal Neuron
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Neuronal Communication _____________ Neuron - Transmitter. _____________ Neuron - Receiver. _________________ : Electrical charge indicating a neuron has “fired”. Excitatory vs. Inhibitory signals. Lock & key. ____________ : formation and disintegration of synapses throughout the lifespan. Synaptic _________.
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Action Potential _____________: neuron is negatively charged relative to outside. ____ & ____ inside neuron; _____ outside neuron. Cell membrane is permeable to ____ _____ channels open during depolarization; _____ pumps operate during repolarization. All or none. Stimulus strength expressed as frequency of action potentials.
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Chemical Messengers __________________: within the nervous system. Acetylcholine. Monoamines. Amino acids. Agonist: __________ activity. Antagonist: ___________ activity. Endorphins: primarily in the brain. __________: secreted by glands and travel through blood stream.
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Acetylcholine (ACh) Synapses with muscle tissue (PNS). - curare is antagonistic. (paralysis) Involved in learning, memory, & emotion (CNS). nicotine is agonistic. Smoking could make learning and memory up, but briefly. Alzheimer’s : progressive decline in cognitive functioning. Widespread degeneration of acetylcholine sensitive neurons.
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AD Brain Form & Function Preclinical Brain Late Stage AD Early Stage AD 20 yrs 80 yrs AD PET scans
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Catecholamines Monoamines: Catecholamines: Dopamine (DA): voluntary motor activity. Parkinson's disease : impaired motor movement & speech; Insufficient dopamine activity. L-dopa is dopamine agonist.(increase dopamine in brain) schizophrenia : dissociation from reality (irrational, hallucinations); Increased dopamine activity.
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  • Fall '09
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