bio ch 8.docx - [=OVERVIEW THE ENERGY OF LIFE The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where thousands of reactions occur The cell extracts

bio ch 8.docx - [=OVERVIEW THE ENERGY OF LIFE The living...

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/[=OVERVIEW: THE ENERGY OF LIFE - The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where thousands of reactions occur - The cell extracts energy and applies energy to perform work - Some organisms even convert energy to light as in bioluminescence CONCEPT 8.1: AN ORGANISM'S METABOLISM TRANSFORMS MATTER AND ENERGY SUBJECT TO THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS - Metabolism is totality of organisms chemical reactions - Metabolism is an emergent property of life that arises from interactions bw molecules within the cell METABOLIC PATHWAYS: - Metabolic pathway: begins with a specific molecules and ends with a product - Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme - Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds - Cellular respiration, the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen, is an example of a pathway of catabolism - Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones - The synthesis of protein from amino acids is an example of anabolism - Bioenergetics is the study of how organisms manage their energy resources Forms of energy: - Energy is the capacity to cause change - Energy exists in various forms, some of which can perform work - Kinetic energy is energy associated with motion - Heat (thermal energy) is kinetic energy associated with random movements of atoms or molecules - Potential energy is energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure - Chemical energy is potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction - Energy can be converted from one form to another 1st law of thermodynamics: Energy of the universe is constant… - Energy can be transferred and transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed - First law also called principle of conservation of energy 2nd law of thermodynamics During every energy transfer or transformation some energy is unusable and is often lost as heat According to the second law of thermodynamics
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