Literature review.docx - Literature review Cyber Bullying While the abusers use different tactics and means the goal remains the same to embarrass

Literature review.docx - Literature review Cyber Bullying...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 8 pages.

Literature review Cyber Bullying While the abusers use different tactics and means, the goal remains the same: to embarrass, humiliate, scare, threaten, silence women and girls, or to encourage mob attacks or malevolent engagements against women and girls. ● Sexist hate speech is defined by the Council of Europe as “ expressions which spread, incite, promote or justify hatred based on sex24”. Typically, these are the rape, death and torture threats women and girls can receive because they are (self-)identified as women and bear the stereotypes enforced by rape culture and patriarchy ( Moafa et al. 2018). ● Cyberbullying consists of repeated behavior such as sending mean text messages, starting rumors, or posting images with the objective of frightening and undermining someone’s self-esteem or reputation, which sometimes pushes vulnerable individuals to depression and suicide ● Cyber harassment is the use of digital means to communicate or interact with a non-consenting person. Cyberbullying occurs the most between minors. Online sexual harassment can take the form of comments, videos, photos, and graphic images of sexual nature aimed at vilifying women and creating conditions of humiliation and sexualization, because they are women ( Mishna et al. 2018). Offensive sexist and insulting words such as “slut”, “whore”, “cunt”, “bitch” can be used, as well as commentaries on women’s physical appearances. ● Cyberstalking is the act of spying, fixating or compiling information about somebody online and to communicate with them against their will. ● Doxing refers to the online researching and publishing of private information on the internet to publicly expose and shame the person targeted.
Image of page 1
Revenge porn, or “image-based sexual abuse” following McGlynn and Rackley, is the fact of using private pictures and videos of sexual character, given or exchanged, and posting them online to shame and humiliate the victim. It can be the extension of intimate partner violence to online spaces. Images can also be obtained by hacking into the victim’s computer, social media accounts or phone, and can aim to inflict real damage on the target’s ‘real-world’ life (such as getting them fired from their job). Research suggests that up to 90 % of revenge porn victims are female and that the number of cases is increasing ( Kabir 2018). There are also a growing number of websites dedicated to sharing revenge porn, where users can submit images alongside personal information such as the victim’s address, employer and links to online profiles. The phenomenon of image based sexual abuse has epitomized with the case of Danish journalist Emma Holten whose naked pictures were posted broadly on the internet. She defended herself by posting the naked pictures online herself, in a successful attempt to reclaim control. The numbers speak for themselves: in January 2017 alone, Facebook had to evaluate 54.000 potential cases of revenge porn and close more than 14.000 accounts ( Wick et al. 2017).
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 8 pages?

  • Spring '14

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors