Anatomy and Physiology I Study Guide I - Anatomy and...

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Anatomy and Physiology IStudy Guide IChemical and Cellular OrganizationPlease be able to define, describe, and/ or discuss the following:1.Organization of living things- atoms to organism1.Atoms:are the smallest chemical units2.Molecules:are a group of atoms working together3.Organelles:are a group of molecules working together4.Cells:are a group of organelles working together5.Tissues:are a group of cells working together6.Organs:are a group of different tissues working together7.Organ System (11):are a group of organs working together8.Organism:is an individual; in which the organ systems work togetherHomeostasis: All body systems working together to maintain a stableinternal environment2.Intrinsic and Extrinsic Regulation1.Intrinsic Regulation(Autoregulation) : automatic response in a cell,tissue, or organ2.Extrinsic Regulation:responses controlled by your nervous andendocrine systemi.Extrinsic controls intrinsicii.You are controlled by your nervous and endocrine system (thyroid,pancreas, ovaries, testes)3.Positive and Negative Feedback1.Positive Feedback: The response of the the effector reinforces thestimulusi.Effector: carries out instructionsii.Ex: Snowball down a hill; a clot creates more clots2.Negative Feedback: the response of the effector negates the stimulusi.Most Commonii.Receptor: receives the stimulusiii.Control Center: processes the signal and sends out instructions toeffectoriv.Ex: the thermometer (receptor) receives the message (the stimulus)that the room is to hot. So the thermometer’s computer (ControlCenter) sends out a message to the AC (Effector) to turn on. Thecool air (Negative Feedback) from the AC decreases thetemperature in the room, negating the original stimulus.4.Atom: the smallest complete unit of elements1.Varies in size, weight, and the ways they interact with each other
2.Elements: are composed of tiny particles called atoms3.Atoms contain: protons; neutrons, and electrons4.Atoms with the same atomic number belong to the same element, andthus have the same inherent properties.i.Atomic Number: the number of protons5.Inert Atoms: have an outer level filled6.Reactive atoms: do not have an outer level filled5.Proton: a positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom6.Neutron: a neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom7.Electron: a negatively charged particle found surrounding the nucleus of an atom(orbital)1.Potential energy of position: is what hold electrons in their place (orbital)2.In some chemical reactions, electrons are transferred between atoms,while still retaining their energy position.i.Oxidation: the loss of an electronii.Reduction: the addition/gain of an electroniii.Most atoms important to life can contain no more than 8 electrons8.Isotope: (ion) an atom that has a charge; this is caused when there are eithermore protons than electrons or more electrons than protons1.Cation: contains more protons than electrons, and carries a positivecharge2.

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