week11_notes.pdf - HUMA 2621 Culture and Environment Week 11 1 Mechanized Capital-Intensive Agriculture 2 Ritual and Magic 1 Part 1 Mechanized

week11_notes.pdf - HUMA 2621 Culture and Environment Week...

This preview shows page 1 - 9 out of 43 pages.

1HUMA 2621 Culture and EnvironmentWeek 11. 1.Mechanized, Capital-Intensive Agriculture 2.Ritual and Magic November 19, 2019
Background image
Part 1: Mechanized, Capital-Intensive Agriculture 2
Background image
Mechanization Mechanization: the replacement of human and animal labor by mechanical devices.The development of sophisticated metallurgical techniques and power-transmission system was achieved relatively recently. Labor is increasingly devoted to the management and maintenance of machinery rather than to the products the machines make. Agricultural districts come to depend on a limited array of crops. 3
Background image
Capital-intensive agricultureBecause tasks are broken down into simple components, this division of labor permits the employment of unskilled labor.When agriculture becomes specialized, farmers tend to view their work as a business, emphasizing cash flow and yield per unit of capital invested.Contemporary American farmers and their European and many Third World counterparts concentrated on producing cash crops; they buy food for themselves in the marketplace. 4
Background image
The change of social relationsSocial relations change as the organization of the workplace changes.In the places of urban employment, kin groups become removed from production or redistribution.People rely less on family members than on fellow employees or associates.Social class, professional affiliation, ethnicity, and union membership take on functions of mutual responsibility and support formerly restricted to relatives. 5
Background image
Changes in settlement and populationThe great demographic transition: a rapid increase in a society’s population with onset of industrialization, following by a leveling off the growth rate.The process of devaluing agricultural products and labor in relation to other commodities serves to push people off the land and set up population movements both within and between nations.The immigrants were displaced from farming by mechanization, monoculture, and other changes.6
Background image
Concentration of wealthThe difference in productivity between richer and poorer lands was multiplied with the advent of intensive agriculture, which both created and amplified regional disparities.Regions with access to cheap energy and sources of capital, labor, and appropriate raw materials may develop rapidly.Within countries, the people who control land and capital can reap far greater rewards than those who have only their labor to sell. The great social and economic disparities develop. 7
Background image
Decreasing cultural and increasing interdependencyThe increasing congruence of the world’s cultures is a direct product of industrialization.
Background image
Image of page 9

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 43 pages?

  • Fall '19

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors