Early European Exploration and Colonization (1).ppt - Early European Exploration and Colonization Early European Exploration and Colonization \u201cNew

Early European Exploration and Colonization (1).ppt - Early...

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Unformatted text preview: Early European Exploration and Colonization Early European Exploration and Colonization “New World” = The Americas (unknown to the West prior to Columbus) Colonization – The establishment of settlements by a parent country for the purpose of enrichment Spain, Portugal, France, England and the Netherlands compete for land and resources beginning in the 15th Century Spain takes the lead in colonizing the New World Developments in Europe Leading to Colonization/Exploration Religious wars/competition (the crusadescompetition between Christianity and Islam; the Reformation – competition between Catholics and Protestants) Growth of commerce and trade Rise in population The establishment of centralized governments The Renaissance (creates a desire for acquiring knowledge about “the unknown”) Advances in sailing technology Advances in Technology The caravel (Portuguese ship designed to travel more efficiently) The compass The astrolabe (instrument designed to determine position by measurement against the sun, moon, stars) Advances in accurate map making (Prince Henry the Navigator; Amerigo Vespucci) Motivations for Spanish, Portuguese and French Exploration/Colonization: The three “G”s God: The desire to spread Christianity (or competition between Catholicism and Protestantism) Gold: The desire to gain wealth, expand trade, and/or acquire raw materials Glory: Pride and prestige/competition with other European nations French, Dutch and English Motivations to Colonize Profit for investors in jointstock companies (Dutch East India Company, Virginia Company) Piracy of Spanish ships Increase Asian trade Discovery of Northwest Passage – a waterway linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Spread Catholicism (French Colonies Christopher Columbus 1451-1506 Becomes the first European to begin permanent colonization of the New World (1492) Reason for first voyage – to discover a western route to Asia Lands on the island of San Salvador (Bahamas), Oct. 12, 1492 Result of his first voyage – started European competition for colonizing the Americas Result of later voyages – the expansion of European civilization in the Americas Hernan(do) Cortes (Cortez) 1485 - 1547 Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs under Montezuma and claimed Mexico for Spain (1520s) Conquistador = one of the Spaniards who traveled to the Americas as an explorer or conqueror in the 16th Century Francisco Pizarro 1476?-1541 Conquered the Incan Empire in South America and claimed western South America for Spain (1530s) Juan Ponce de Leon 1460-1521 First Spaniard to claim what is now United States territory – “La Florida” (1513) Francisco Vasquez de Coronado 1510-1554 Helped establish the mission system in what is now the Western United States (1540s) Begins contact with Pueblo Indians who would late lead a successful revolt against the Spanish (Pope Revolt of 1680) Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Agreement (brokered by Pope Alexander VI) between Spain and Portugal which divided the Western Hemisphere Imaginary line drawn across the Hemisphere – Spain was allowed land west of the line, Portugal allowed land east of the line Result=Spain dominated the Americas except for Brazil which “belonged” to Portugal Characteristics of Spanish Colonization Royal ownership of land with society tightly controlled by royal laws /Large sections of land granted by king to elite supporters Hierarchical social organization – Europeans at top, followed by Mestizos, Native Americans, and slaves each with clearly defined roles Frequent conflicts with Native Americans, followed by intermarriage between Spanish men, Native women Focus on economic profit, extraction of natural resources and Christianization of Natives and slaves Encomienda System – Spanish policy of placing land owners in control of the local Native population as “protectors” of the Natives; led to Native enslavement (later African enslavement instead) Spanish Colonization of the Americas European Colonization of North America French and English Colonies in North America French Colonies: Friendlier relations with Native Americans/formed alliances Sparsely populated; few settlements and immigrants, incl. traders, missionaries Economy focused almost exclusively on lucrative fur trade Exclusively Catholic and controlled by King English Colonies: Rapid growth, competition for land led to conflicts w/Native Americans Large population on Eastern seaboard, rapid growth, large number of diverse immigrants Diverse economy Largely Protestant, some self-government, religious freedom Reasons for the Success of the European Colonizers Some Native Americans welcomed them as gods (Aztecs) The help of Indian allies The spread of European diseases weakened the Indians – disease by far the largest reason for death of millions of Native Americans in the New World Superior weapons Consequences of the European Explorers and Conquerors Subjugation/elimination of Native American empires and cultures - Mass migration of Europeans to the Americas in search of religious freedom/economic opportunity The expansion of European language/culture/religion and creation of new races of people Mestizo = a person of mixed native American and European ancestry The establishment of the plantation system using slave labor/enslavement of West Africans - Plantation – A large farm on which one cash crop is grown to sale - Cash Crop – A crop grown for sale rather than personal use Examples in the Americas: tobacco, sugar, rice, indigo The Columbian Exchange The Columbian Exchange – The transfer (beginning with Columbus’ first voyage) of plants, animals, and diseases between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres Colonization, trade, and interaction of Europeans, Native Americans and Africans leads to Columbian Exchange To Europe/Africa: pumpkins, turkeys, potato, tomato tobacco, peppers, corn, peanuts To the Americas: coffee, citrus fruits, grapes, sugar cane, livestock, bees, diseases ...
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  • Fall '15
  • Jepson, Joel

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