Urinary System Guided Notes(1).docx - CHAPTER 24 \u2013 URINARY SYSTEM 24.1 \u2013 Introduction to the Urinary System The urinary system is collectively

Urinary System Guided Notes(1).docx - CHAPTER 24 –...

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CHAPTER 24 – URINARY SYSTEM 24.1 – Introduction to the Urinary System The urinary system is collectively composed of the _Kidneys__, ___ureters__, ___Urinary Bladder__, and __urethra__. One of the primary functions of the kidneys is to filter __blood__ and convert the filtrate into _urine__. This liquid waste is then transported by the _ureters__ from the kidneys to the __Uninary Bladder____, which is an expandable muscular sac that stores as much as 1 L of urine until it is eliminated from the body through the __urethra___. Your text mentions 5 physiologic processes performed by the kidneys in converting filtrate into urine list them below. ____elimination of metabolic wastes_______ ____regulation of Ion levels_____ ____regulation of Acid-Base balance____ ____regulation of Blood Pressure_______ ____elimination of biologically active molecules_____ Your text mentions 3 other functions of the kidneys, that are not part of urine formation. List them below. ____formation of calcitriol_____ _____production and release of erythropoietin ____ ____potential to engage gluconeogenesis______ The kidneys remove unwanted materials from the ___blood___, maintain blood plasma concentrations of ___ions___, help regulate blood __PH__, alter blood __volume____, regulate the number of ___erythrocytes__, and also help maintain blood __glucose levels____. 24.2 – Gross Anatomy of the Kidney Each kidney measures about _12_ cm in length, __6.5__ cm in width, and __2.5__ cm in thickness. Each (kidney) has a concave medial border called the ___hilum___, where vessels, nerves, and the ureter connect to the kidney. The kidneys are positioned posterior to the parietal peritoneum in the __retroperitioneal__.
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When a kidney is sectioned along a coronal plane, the parenchyma or functioning tissue is visible. The two distinct regions of the parenchyma include an outer _renal cortex__ and an inner _renal medulla__. Extensions of the cortex, called _renal columns__, project into the medulla and subdivide it into __renal pyramids__ that appear striated or striped. Each kidney contains a medially located space called the __renal sinus__, in addition to the parenchyma. Each of the 8-15 __minor calyces___ is associated with a renal pyramid.
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