10337255.pdf - Module Title Module CODE 08PS102 Programme...

This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 8 pages.

Module Title: Neuropsychopharmacology Module CODE: 08PS102 Programme: BA (Hons) in Psychology Module Leader: Mary Peyton Student: Marcos Vinicius Barboza n 10337255
Image of page 1
This essay aims to outline the impact of depression as well as pharmacological mechanism of action and potential drug treatment with emphasis on the recent discovered ketamine use as antidepressant. Depression is a mood disorder characterized by a severely low mood that lasts two weeks or more and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lethargy, sleep and appetite disturbance. Apart from causing emotional problems, depression also causes individuals chronic physical disorders, as the affected person has a higher tendency to engage in substances such as smoking, drinking and recreational drugs. As a result, those substances have negative side-effects on the body. Thus, depression has been consistently a great predictor of heart attacks, stroke, diabetes and certain types of cancer as well as negatively impacting on the overall biological and immune balance of the body (Ronald C. Kessler 2012). However, there is no clear evidence of what causes depression, as many of the symptoms are associated with other disorders, which makes the appropriate diagnostic difficult. In addition, our understanding of what causes depression and how the treatment of depression works is still in development and, in relation to the pharmacological treatments, it is impossible to pin down (drug- induced treatment-drug) as the mechanism of action for those drugs remains to be established. It has been statistically demonstrated that depression is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. For instance, depression is the most common affective disorder, with more than 300 million people affected (World Heath Organization (WHO) 2015). Depression can cause diverse effects impacting critical aspects of the effected person’s life, such as academic impairment, marital stability, occupation, childbearing. At its worst, it can result in death, leading the affected person to end with their own life. Every year approximately 800,000 people die due to suicide and almost 50% of these commit suicide during the recovery period following a major depressive episode (Isacsson and Rich, 1997). Reports have warned that Ireland has the highest suicide rate for female children in Europe. Irish suicide figures reveal that women are more likely to experience depression and anxiety than men (NWCI 2018). Based on these figures, it is important to accept that depression
Image of page 2
represents a major problem worldwide and its prevention or treatment could help thousands of people and cause mortality rates to drop. It is important also to bear in mind the economic impact that depression can cause on the health care system, on the development of prescribed drugs and on the workforce of those living with the disorder (Heninger et al. 1996).
Image of page 3
Image of page 4

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 8 pages?

  • Fall '19
  • Antidepressant

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors