Limiting Reactant—Text Version - Limiting Reactant—Text...

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Limiting Reactant—Text Version As you have already seen, the measurements in recipes can help you predict the amount of finished product you can make, just as the coefficients in a balanced equation can be used to predict the amount of product that can be produced by a reaction. When baking, Donnie likes to make as many cookies as he can with the amount of ingredients he has on hand. He knows that the aroma of freshly baked cookies always brings hungry friends and family to the kitchen, so the more cookies he has the better! Using the cookie recipe below, determine how many batches of cookies can be made by the given amount of each ingredient. Whichever ingredient predicts the fewest batches of cookies is the ingredient that will run out first. Sugar Cookie Recipe: 1.5 cups butter or margarine, softened 1.5 cups sugar 0.5 teaspoon vanilla (extract) 3 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 0.5 teaspoon salt Yields 1 batch of cookies (approximately 30 cookies) In a mixing bowl, cream butter and sugar. Beat in vanilla. Combine flour, baking soda, and salt; gradually add to the creamed mixture. Shape into two 8-in. rolls, wrap each in plastic wrap, refrigerate for 4 hours until firm. Unwrap and cut into 1/4-in. slices. Place 2 in. apart on ungreased baking sheets. Bake at 350°F for 12–14 minutes or until set (do not brown). Remove to wire racks to cool. Given amount in Donnie’s kitchen: 4 cups butter 6 cups sugar 4 teaspoons vanilla 9 cups flour 5 teaspoons baking soda 8 teaspoons salt Using each of the given amounts of ingredients, determine how many batches of cookies can be made (assuming there is plenty of each of the other ingredients). Which ingredient makes the fewest batches of cookies? Check your answers after you have done your own calculations. Check your answers 5 cups butter × = 3.33 batches of cookies
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6 cups sugar × = 4 batches of cookies 4 teaspoons vanilla × = 8 batches of cookies 9 cups flour × = 3 batches of cookies 5 teaspoons baking soda × = 5 batches of cookies 8 teaspoons salt × = 16 batches of cookies Even though the other ingredients can make more cookies, the flour runs out after making three batches. This means that flour is the first ingredient to run out, and it limits Donnie to making only three batches of cookies. He’s going to need to stash some of those cookies away for himself before his family and friends come in and start snacking! As you can see, you can apply the same skills that you have already seen with mole ratios and stoichiometry to solve problems that involve a given amount of more than one ingredient or reactant. All the stoichiometry problems that you have seen so far involved calculations where you solved for the amount of a substance that will react with, or be produced from, a given amount of another substance. However, in reality reactions are rarely carried out with the precise amounts of reactants required to react completely.
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