Psy-101-Comprehensive-Notes.pdf - PSY101 NOTES!1 chapter 1 Psychology WHY STUDY PSYCHOLOGY \u2022 \u2022 how people see the world translates to their

Psy-101-Comprehensive-Notes.pdf - PSY101 NOTES!1 chapter 1...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY101 NOTES !1 chapter 1: Psychology WHY STUDY PSYCHOLOGY? • • how people see the world translates to their behaviour • cognitive neuroscience: uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and position emission tomography (PET) to monitor brain structure and activity psychodynamic • unconscious aspects of the mind helps people understand why others do what they do • conflict between biological instincts and societys demands self, reactions to others • considers early childhood experiences ✓ • discusses how the brain and body are connected • provides ways to improve learning abilities and memory to deal • with the stresses of life • • • ✓ lived through victorian era (much conservative) ✓ studied emotional disturbances in his patients (pleasure, desires forbidden by society) rooted in childhood understanding methods psychologists use is really important since research may be flawed • identifying patters promotes critical thinking • mental iceberg humanistic PSYCHOLOGY AS A DISCIPLINE/SCIENCE • Freud • emphasises a persons capacity of personal growth, freedom to choose ones destiny, finding meaning in life, positive qualities, free scientific study of human behaviour and cognitive processes will, achievement of full potential ➡ human behaviour: outward/overt actions and reactions • unconditional positive regard, self actualisation, human needs ➡ cognitive processes: internal activity, thoughts, feelings • psychoanalysis + behaviourism scientific method: study relies on observation that is absolutely • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers unbiased • psyche: soul/mind behavioural neuroscience • PSYCHOLOGY’S GOALS 1. 2. 3. 4. describe (whats up) explain (why so) predict (when will it happen) control (how can it be controlled?) ➡ understanding behaviour and mental processes • example: emotions and feelings may be due to hormones and neurochemicals • more biological approach to psychology • also known as the biopsychological perspective • identifies the diseases that have to do with the behaviour of a person evolutionary PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES behavioural cognitive psychodynamic humanistic behavioural neuroscience evolutionary sociocultural positive psychology the brain and nervous system play important roles in } • Charles Darwin • adaptation, natural selection, survival • example: men prefer women with wide hips (for child bearing), women prefer strong men (for protection) sociocultural • culture, ethnicity, religion, race, gender are essential to understanding behaviour, thought and emotion positive psychology • positive human characteristics such as resilience, hope, optimism and happiness influence human behaviour the history of psychology different psychological phenomena can be explained through different perspectives (these may overlap) ➡ there is no one perspective better than others ➡ if a vase is in the middle of the classroom, everyone sees the same vase but from different points of view behavioural Aristotle • De Anima : relationship of soul and body • study of behaviour and its environmental determinants • reward/punishment, operant conditioning • may be vicariously learned Plato • behaviourists believe everyone is born with a blank slate; people • dualism : soul could exist separately from the body are products of their environment (operant conditioning) cognitive • mental processes • attention, perception, memory, intelligence, decision making MCMDBL Rene Descartes • pineal gland : this gland was at the seat of the soul • agreed with Plato PSY101 NOTES Wilhelm Wundt • father of psychology, originally a physiologist • consciousness + thoughts + experiences + emotions + feelings • developed his theories of consciousness by building a lab in !2 • PSYCHOLOGIST VS PSYCHIATRIST Lezpig, Germany • applied scientific principles to the human mind • objective introspection : process of examining and measuring psychologist : PhD, has lots of career options, delivers therapy, • must be licensed to practice ones own thoughts and mental activities, perception psychiatrist : MD, specialises in diagnosis and treatment of • psychological disorders Edward Kitchener • took Wundts ideas and expanded on them • structuralism : study on the structure of the mind ; (elements SCIENTIFIC METHOD include: individual emotions, sensations, memories) ; died out in the 1900s William James • taught anatomy, physiology and psychology at Harvard (which was 1. 2. the first school in America to offer psychology classes) • focused on the importance of consciousness, not just its analysis • beloved that studying consciousness was not yet possible because conscious ideas constantly flow and change • concentrated on how the mind allows people to function in the read world • 3. 4. 5. • • Gestalt Psychology gestalt : German word meaning an organised whole or part of the study of cognitive psychology which focused on perception and sensation • perception can only be understood as a whole • to observe a glass, you dont break it and look at the pieces. then you ll be observing pieces of glass, and not the said glass theory : true until proven wrong; mere prediction, explains an hypothesis : idea arrived logically based on theory; educated guess • operational definition : definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured configuration • observation - requires a keen observer to make accurate and valid observations - must be unbiased - more observers are good understanding consciousness Naturalistic Setting ✓ natural environment of subject ✓ little to no control over variables nervous disorders with no physical cause must mean cause is in ✓ realistic the mind ✓ risk of observer effect/observer bias people push away urges/desires into their subconscious ✓ researchers try to stay hidden (one way mirrors, Freud (Psychoanalysis) • • theory and hypothesis observation inherited) • } based on two key ideas: functionalism : heavily influenced by Charles Darwins ideas (natural selection) ; behavioural traits for survival (either taught or • identify problem formulate hypothesis test hypothesis draw conclusions report results participant observation, blind observers) (unconscious mind) ✓ difficult to replicate precisely • nervous disorders = repressed urges trying to resurface • stressed importance on childhood • psychoanalysis : theory based on Freuds work Laboratory Observation • psychotherapy : a trained professional uses this to help a person ✓ artificial situation may result in artificial behaviour gain insight into and initiate change in his or her behaviour ✓ experimenters have complete control Pavlov (Conditioning) • reflexes can be caused in response to an unrelated stimulus • conditioning : learning reflexive response Watson (Behaviourism) • science of behaviour • focused on the observable, factors that can be directly seen and measured • behaviour is learned as a result of a stimulus-response relationship • phobias are learned • Mary Cover Jones - developed counterconditioning ; found pleasure outweighed fear
 MCMDBL survey - gather plenty of responses in a short time may not be accurate representative sample should be legit respondents may not answer properly (courtesy bias) interview - via phone, internet or face to face elicits more responses per person but allows for less respondents face to face is best because interviewer may observe the reactions interviewer must be objective standardised Test - measures a construct - standard administration, scoring and interpretation - results are usually compared to a norm PSY101 NOTES !3 case Study - CHAPTER 2: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM in depth multi method approach for specific, unique, rare topics (difficult to apply to many) used to deeply understand a subject (person, condition, phenomenon) that is rarely observed on a day to day basis experiment - find causal relationships between variables - requires meticulousness ➡ extensive network of specialised cells ➡ carries information to and from all parts of the body ➡ divided into two parts: central nervous system and peripheral nervous system ➡ neuroscience : branch of life sciences that deals with the structure and functioning of the nervous system and its parts correlation - finding possible relationships (coincidences) - subjects may be related by mutual factor but not necessarily to each other ETHICS • consideration of human rights • informed consent • deception must be justified but full disclosure must still be given • pros vs cons • respondents must be protected NEURONS • specialised cells that make up the nervous system • send and receive messages • make up 10% of the brain • generally negatively charged • have semipermeable membranes PARTS OF A NEURON dendrites myelin sheath axon terminal CRITICAL THINKING ➡ ➡ evaluate what you read ✓ type of article ✓ topic ✓ claims about the subject ✓ title ✓ assumptions being made ✓ credibility of authors and references ✓ purpose/agenda of article soma synaptic 3. Experts can be wrong. dendrites : branch like structures that receive information soma : cell body, maintains life of cell axon : long tube-like structure that carries neural messages myelin : fatty substance that coats the axons ; insulates and 4. Critical thinking requires an open mind. protects and speeds up neural impulse ; cleans up waste products criteria 1. There are very few truths in the world that do not need to be subject to testing. 2. All evidence are not equal in quality. and dead neutrons ; produced by glial cells glial cells : provide support for neutrons to grow on Phineas Gage • • suffered frontal lobe damage resulting from a metal rod driven and around, deliver nutrients to neutrons have properties through his head similar to stem cells ; make up 90% of the brain accident caused a severe shift in personality Oligodendrocytes : CNS Schwann cells : PNS BRAIN VS MIND axon terminal : branch like structures at the end of the axon • brain : organ that controls the body • mind : the organised conscious and unconscious; adaptive mental synaptic knobs : rounded areas at the end of axon terminals activity of an organism that contain the synaptic vesicles and receptor sites synaptic vesicles : sac like structures in the Oliver Sacks • synaptic knobs that contain neurotransmitters neuroscientist, author (wrote about rare clinical cases hed receptor sites : holes in the surface of dendrites ; encountered) • book: The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat • impaired recognition PROSOPAGNOSIO • face blindness, inability to recognise/recall faces • first realised in the 1940s in soldiers who suffered brain damage PROPRIOCEPTION can only accept specific neurotransmitters depending on the body part TYPES OF NEURONS sensory/afferent neurons : senses to spinal cord motor/efferent neurons : spinal cord to muscles and glands • loss of sensation throughout the body • nerve damage - no movement made was automatic (couldnt be interneurons : connect afferent and efferent neurons, center of felt) spinal cord, make up much of the neurons in the brain MCMDBL PSY101 NOTES !4 • NERVES • bundles of myelin coated axons that travel together through the body • myelin sheaths : coating of myelin that insulate the axons (like telephone wires) • antagonists : blocks or reduces the effect of neurotransmitters Botulism - botox : used to prevent facial muscles from causing wrinkles - blocks release of acetylcholine from muscles (causes paralysis) nodes : spaces between sections of myelin that allow the electrical impulses to travel faster NEURAL IMPULSE • resting potential : neuron at rest • action potential : when enough positive ions build up around the neuron during resting potential, the membrane of the neuron becomes permeable ; neutron is positively charged as a quick burst of electrical energy passes through it (from the dendrites to the axon Poison from Black Widow Spiders - stimulates the release of acetylcholine - causes convulsions Cocaine - prevents reabsorption of dopamine - causes excess dopamine - leads to heightened arousal of nervous system terminals) Alcohol SYNAPSES • also called synaptic gaps • space between the axon terminal of a neuron and a dendrite of another 1. electrical charge reaches axon terminal and synaptic knobs 2. synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters 3. neurotransmitters travel though synaptic gap to receptor sites - stimulates the release of GABA - lowers inhibition - slows down or stops neural activity Opiates - imitates endorphines - painkillers PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM NEUROTRANSMITTERS • chemicals that have specific effects on other cells • excitatory neurotransmitters : increases action potential • inhibitory neurotransmitters : prevents action potential Acetylcholine - muscle contractions, attention, memory - low in people with Alzheimer s SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM • soma means body • sensory pathway + motor pathway - sensory pathway : senses to CNS - motor pathway : voluntary/skeletal muscles allow movement at GABA ( Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) - helps calm anxiety reactions - produces inhibition in brain (reduced control) - low in those with anxiety Norepinephrine - speeds up heart rate and other body processes will AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM • involved in arousal and mood muscles low in those with depression • requires little to no control/willfulness high in those who are manic • essential body functions - breathing - digestion - blood flow Dopamine - usually associated with love, goals, desires and needs control of movement, sleep, attention, learning • activates bodily reactions to emotions sensations of pleasure (motivation, reward, lust) low in those with Parkinsons high in those with Schizophrenia Serotonin - regulates mood, sleep, appetite - low in those with depression Endorphins - natural opiates (painkillers) - inhibitory neural regulators *psychiatrists prescribe agonists/antagonists based on their effects on neurotransmitters AGONISTS AND ANTAGONISTS • sends messages from the CNS to the organs, glands and agonists : mimics or enhances the release of neurotransmitters MCMDBL Sympathetic - prepares body to respond to stress - activates organs to improve ability to respond to stress Parasympathetic - maintenance of body (post stress) - most active during processes that replenish energy - restores normal activity when dress levels are low PSY101 NOTES !5 central nervous system SPINAL CORD • column of nerves as thick as a thumb • runs through the middle of a column of hollow bones • two major functions: 1. carry sensory information to and from PNS 2. control some reflexes without needing input from brain (this allows the body to react to potential dangers more rapidly) BRAIN • pinkish white colour • weighs, on average, less than 3lbs • master control center of all human activities cerebral cortex • capacity of brain • cortex is Latin for bark • highest portion of brain • most recently developed part of great (least primitive) • contains the 4 lobes (which is divided into two hemispheres) THE 4 LOBES Occipital Lobe Parietal Lobe Temporal Lobe Frontal Lobe occipital lobe • occipital means rear • primary visual cortex : processes visual information • visual association cortex : interprets/recognises visual information 3 PRIMARY STRUCTURES Brain Stem Midbrain Cerebral Cortex many folds and ridges to increase surface area, in turn increase parietal lobe • top of brain • bodily sensations • somatosensory cortex : receives information from the skin and internal organs, identifies what someone sense brain stem medulla - begins where spinal cord enters skull - controls involuntary bodily functions pons - just above medulla - controls sleep and arousal - bridge between upper and lower parts of the brain reticular system - center of medulla and pons - alertness and wakefulness - filters the information received by the brain (only temporal lobe • located just above the ears (where temples are) • primary auditory cortex : processes auditory information • auditory association cortex : interprets/recognises auditory information frontal lobe • behind the forehead • speech, motor cortex • higher mental processes (planning, personality, memory storing, complex decision making, inhibition of socially inappropriate behaviour) allows some sensory messages to reach the cerebrum cerebellum - little brain - control and coordination of fine and complex motor movements • synaesthesia : disassociation of senses (possible overlap of sensory nerves) OTHER IMPORTANT ASSOCIATION AREAS IN THE CEREBRUM Broca’s Area midbrain • limbic system • to do with learning, memory, emotion and motivation • left frontal lobe • ability to speak (pronounce words) and generate language is impaired • Broca s Aphasia : people with this condition can understand what is thalamus - center of brain - sensory relay system - organises information received by the brain hypothalamus - sexual behaviour, hunger, thirst, body temperature - pleasure center said to them but have difficulty verbalising a response (mispronunciation, stuttering, poor articulation) Wernicke’s Area • left temporal lobe • recognition of words • Wernicke s Aphasia : can correctly enunciate words but cannot hippocampus - Greek word for seahorse - memories - spatial awareness amygdala - fear responses ✓ rage ✓ vulnerability assign meaning to them 2 HEMISPHERES • connected by corpus callous • brain works as a whole despite division • left brain : processing/analysis of detail (verbal information, logic, intellect, language, speech) • right brain : global processing (nonverbal information, creativity, intuition, emotion, spacial perception, visual recognition, humour) MCMDBL PSY101 NOTES !6 Reinforcement CHAPTER 5: LEARNING ➡ - process by which a stimulus or an event strengthens the probability of a behaviour/event that it follows - positive reinforcement : behaviour leads to something pleasant given - negative reinforcement : behaviour leads to something any relatively permanent change in behaviour brought about by experience or practice ➡ unpleasant taken away - reinforcers • primary reinforcers : meets basic biological need, theoretically permanent - you cant forget how to ride a bike - brain structure changes/adapts when you learn something innately satisfying • secondary reinforcers : have to be learned ; new becomes reinforcing after being associated with a ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING • connections made between stimuli • conditioning primary reinforcer - schedules of reinforcement • partial reinforcement : inconsistent • continuous reinforcement : consistent • fixed ratio : something must be done a definite Classical Conditioning • an individual learns that one event or stimuli follows another • neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and number of times before reinforcement • variable ratio : reinforcement comes after indefinite repetitions acquires a capacity to elicit a similar response • • fixed interval : fixed time between rewards • variable interval : random reinforcement relies on reflexes/reactions to particular stimuli 1. unconditioned stimulus : elicits response without learning 2. Punishment unconditioned response : unlearned, inborn, natural - response 3. conditioned stimulus : previously a neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus 4. weakening behaviour decreases likelihood of occurrence of behaviour positive punishment : unpleasant stimulus is given punishment by removal : pleasant stimulus is taken away conditioned response : learned response to conditioned stimulus that occurs after the conditioned stimulus- Shaping unconditioned stimulus pairings • - reinforcement of simple steps in behaviour that lead to a stimulus generalisation : tendency of a new stimulus, similar to desired, more complex behaviour original, to elicit same response as the original ; dependent on how - successive approximations : small steps in behaviour, close the likeness is to the original stimulus • one after ...
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