genefamily.pdf - Help Me Understand Genetics Gene Groups Reprinted from https\/ Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications

genefamily.pdf - Help Me Understand Genetics Gene Groups...

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Help Me Understand Genetics Gene Groups Reprinted from Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Department of Health & Human Services Published November 12, 2019
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Genetics Home Reference - Gene Groups Gene Groups Table of Contents Section Page What are gene groups? 3 Blood group antigens 4 Collagen proteoglycans 7 Complement system 9 Cytochrome p450 11 Endogenous ligands 14 Histocompatibility complex 16 Homeoboxes 18 Keratins 20 Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex 22 Myosins 24 Transfer RNAs 26 page 2
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Genetics Home Reference - Gene Groups What are gene groups? A gene group is a set of genes that share important characteristics. In many cases, genes in a group share a similar sequence of DNA building blocks (nucleotides). These genes provide instructions for making products (such as proteins) that have a similar structure or function. In other cases, dissimilar genes are grouped together because proteins produced from these genes work together as a unit or participate in the same process. Classifying individual genes into groups helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. Researchers can use gene groups to predict the function of newly identified genes based on their similarity to known genes. Similarities among genes in a group can also be used to predict where and when a specific gene is active (expressed). Additionally, gene groups may provide clues for identifying genes that are involved in particular diseases. Sometimes not enough is known about a gene to assign it to an established group. In other cases, genes may fit into more than one group. No formal guidelines define the criteria for grouping genes together. Classification systems for genes continue to evolve as scientists learn more about the structure and function of genes and the relationships between them. For more information about gene groups: The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee ( genegroup/) (HGNC) has classified many human genes into groups. Each grouping is given a name and symbol, and contains a table of the genes in that group. The Gene Ontology () database lists the protein products of genes by their location within the cell (cellular component), biological process, and molecular function. The Reactome () database classifies the protein products of genes based on their participation in specific biological pathways. For example, this resource provides tables of genes involved in controlled cell death (apoptosis), cell division, and DNA repair. page 3
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Genetics Home Reference - Gene Groups Blood group antigens Blood is classified into different groups according to the presence or absence of molecules called antigens on the surface of every red blood cell in a person's body. Antigens determine blood type and can either be proteins or complexes of sugar molecules (polysaccharides). The genes in the blood group antigen group
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