Survey- Late Middle Ages (4).pdf - The LATE MIDDLE AGES...

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Unformatted text preview: The LATE MIDDLE AGES CLIMATE CHANGE, WAR, THE CHURCH, AND THE ALMOST-RENAISSANCE 1100-1300: WARMER THAN USUAL 1300-1450: THE LITTLE ICE AGE ❖ Rivers froze, crops did not ripen across northern Europe ❖ Villages abandoned ❖ Unusual number of storms killed crops ❖ Both humans and animals threatened 1315-1322: THE GREAT FAMINE APOCALYPTICISM: 7 lean years (from Genesis 42) THE LITTLE ICE AGE Reduced caloric intake= ❖ Susceptibility to disease (especially infants, elderly) ❖ Lower productivity for workers ❖ Lower supply ➢ higher prices 1315-1322: THE GREAT FAMINE THE LITTLE ICE AGE ❖ Many forced to sell, mortgage, sublease land holdings for money to purchase food ❖ Rich farmers bought out poor neighbors, leading to food monopolies 1315-1322: THE GREAT FAMINE THE LITTLE ICE AGE ❖ Fewer people married=lower population ❖ Aftermath: creditors attempted to collect, couldn’t, leads to volatile market 1315-1322: THE GREAT FAMINE THE LITTLE ICE AGE ❖ Caused governments and merchants to look abroad for food ❖ Began consistent trade with China ❖ Sailing technologies allowed merchants to trade year-round THE BLACK DEATH THE BUBONIC PLAGUE ❖ Trade did not stop after the famine ➢ Too profitable ❖ Rats lived on shipped cargo ❖ Fleas lived on rats THE BUBONIC PLAGUE ❖ Fleas carried bacterium ➢ Yersinia pestis ➢ Transmittable to rats, humans ➢ Transmitted pneumonically THE BUBONIC PLAGUE ❖ Hits Italy first, hardest ❖ Merchant vessels delivering products spread it to Spain, England ❖ All of Europe was eventually effected ❖ Urban areas hit hardest ➢ Overcrowding ➢ “Streets filled with human excrement” ➢ Dead animals, beggars, tall buildings blocking light and air THE BUBONIC PLAGUE ❖ People lived in close quarters ➢ Six-seven people slept in rooms together for warmth. ➢ Personal hygiene not a thing. ➢ Disease spread to entire families. ❖ ESTIMATED DEATH TOLL: ➢ 60% of Europe’s entire population ➢ 50 Million people THE BUBONIC PLAGUE ❖ COLLATERAL DAMAGE: ➢ Towns, cities, villages became closed off ■ Suspicious of travelers and immigrants ■ Built walls, enclosures ➢ Monasteries became clinics for the sick ■ Church impacted severely THE BUBONIC PLAGUE ❖ COLLATERAL BENEFITS: ➢ Some European states were overpopulated ■ Deaths led to job openings for the poor ■ Less production was necessary for smaller populations JOHN MCKAY ON CULTURAL CONSEQUENCES “Imagine an entire society in the grip of the belief that it was at the mercy of a frightful affliction about which nothing could be done, a disgusting disease from which family and friends would flee, leaving one to die alone and in agony.” “It is not surprising that some sought release in wild living, while others turned to the severest forms of asceticism and frenzied religious fervor. Some extremists joined groups of flagellants, who whipped and scourged themselves as penance for their and society’s sins in the belief that the Black Death was God’s punishment for humanity’s wickedness.” GOVERNMENT INEPTITUDE GOVERNMENT INEPTITUDE ❖ Governments in Europe had few solutions to problems ❖ Some set price controls ❖ Some controlled distribution of grain, other commodities ❖ Most encouraged wars GOVERNMENT INEPTITUDE EDWARD I, ENGLAND r. 1239-1307 ❖ Used price controls ➢ Livestock ➢ Ale ❖ Mostly fought a war against the Scots GOVERNMENT INEPTITUDE ❖ English eventually lost these wars ❖ For more, see: Braveheart GOVERNMENT INEPTITUDE In January 1327... ❖ Queen Isabella of England, her lover Mortimer, group of barons, murdered King Edward II ❖ proclaimed his fifteen-year-old son king as Edward III. THE SHE-WOLF OF FRANCE ❖ Isabella was the biological sister of King Philip V of France, who died in 1328. ❖ she was the last surviving member of the Capet dynasty ❖ Her son was King of England SAVVY MANEUVERS ❖ Isabella could run the show in France ❖ Richard III (her son) could run the show in England. ❖ England and France under the same family leadership. SAVVY MANEUVERS ❖ But French officials did not want this to happen. ❖ So they manufactured a legal reason to stop it: ❖ Barons in France claimed that “no woman nor her son could succeed to the monarchy.” ❖ Barons use 6th century Germanic law code excluding women from ruling outright. ➢ Invented a French tradition excluding women from the crown ➢ Would last until the fall of the monarchy in 1789. ❖ Crown passed instead to Philip V’s nephew, naming him King Philip VI of France 100 Years of War REWIND TO 1259: ❖ English had established a permanent settlement in Aquitaine, France ❖ They signed a treaty with the French permitting them ownership of the region. 100 Years of War Fast Forward to 1337 ❖ Philip VI Captures Aquitaine ❖ Edward III Says it violates the Treaty ❖ Announces British will reclaim Aquitaine ❖ Announces he will then take all of France THE 100 YEARS WAR ❖ LASTED FROM 1337-1453 ➢ Notable Moments ■ English Employ Longbow ■ Joan of Arc ■ Renewed Hostilities against the Scottish ■ Millions more die ■ War ends in stalemate; no territory lost or gained. MORE BAD TIMES AT CHURCH DUELING POPES 1309: ❖ Pope Clement V visits papal summer home in Avignon, France ❖ King Philip the Fair (IV) pressures him to make Avignon the permanent seat of the Pope ❖ Clement says no ❖ Philip says Yes ❖ Clement is weak from illness (possibly cancer) ❖ Philip instructs army to surround Avignon residence THE BABYLONIA N CAPTIVITY ❖ 1309-1376, The pope lived in Avignon ❖ French Monarchy controlled the Church ❖ 1377: Massive protest of Roman citizens ❖ Threatened to revolt if Pope not returned to Rome ❖ Demanded Italian be elected and seated in Rome ❖ Church in Rome elected Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) URBAN VI SHAKES THINGS UP ❖ Decreased the luxuries of church officials ❖ Spend less money on building projects ❖ Threatened to excommunicate decadent cardinals, other church officials. ❖ People loved him. ❖ Church hated him. ❖ Ranks #7 on list of “Top 10 Crazy Badass Popes” CHURCH OFFICIALS HATE URBAN VI ❖ Cardinals hold a secret meeting ❖ Excommunicate Urban VI ❖ Elect Robert of Geneva (cousin of King Philip V), Clement VII ❖ Roman people refuse to recognize him. ❖ He decides to live in Avignon instead of Rome. ❖ Referred to as “Antipope” The ANTIPOPE ANOTHER GREAT SCHISM Two Popes. CHRISTIANITY DIVIDED until 1417. THE ALMOST-RENAISSANCE The church was divided, and regular Europeans were getting tired of plague, wars, and the decadent in-fighting of their church officials and politicians. So peasants rebelled, and commoners began to develop new thought processes about the church and society in general. A boom in common literacy followed. Independent thinking followed that. This set the stage for a massive artistic, creative, and intellectual movement. ...
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