C155 Patho Foundations for Adv Nursing Practice.doc - Running head Adult Asthma Health Crisis Adult Asthma Health Crisis Peta-Jaye Richards Foundations

C155 Patho Foundations for Adv Nursing Practice.doc -...

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Running head: Adult Asthma Health Crisis Adult Asthma Health Crisis Peta-Jaye Richards Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing Practice Western Governors University
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Adult Asthma Health Crisis Adult Asthma Health Crisis Investigated Disease Process Asthma is not only of national importance, but is globally recognized as an increasing health crisis. A significant economic burden is imposed on countries when the disease process remains unmanaged. Patients also face the threat of hindrances to one’s quality of life, as well as the threat of potential death. This discussion will identify the national standard of practice; including evidence based pharmacological treatments and clinical guidelines. Factors contributing to proper management and conversely, mismanagement, are also discussed. Suggestions are then given for organizational implementations that can be made to start decreasing the economic burden and improve the quality of life for those living with asthma. Pathophysiology Asthma, generally develop in childhood, is an obstructive pulmonary airway disease characterize by reversible obstruction. The airway obstruction is associated with hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. With increased urbanization, the prevalence of asthma has increase not only in children, but also in the adult population, with 17.7 million adult cases in the United States (Heuther, 2018). Common indoor triggers are second hand tobacco smoke, dust mites, mold, pests, and pet dander. Common outdoor triggers are pollen, industrial emissions, and automobile exhaust. The primary option is that high exposure to such allergens increases the risk of asthma, but there is another hypothesis where decreased exposure to certain infectious organisms creates immunological imbalances that favor the development of allergy and asthma in some individuals. Regardless of the cause in the development of asthma, the body’s physiological response has similar clinical manifestations. 2
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Adult Asthma Health Crisis When an allergen or antigen is inhaled, the epithelial cells in the airway tract of the lungs initiates innate and adaptive immune responses in the early and late asthmatic phases. In the early phase, exposure to antigens in the bronchial mucosa activates dendritic cells. Dendritic cells are phagocytes an antigen presenting cells. They work to capture and then present or bring the foreign antigens to THelper Cells (CD4+ Cells). This then activates Th2 cells, releasing inflammatory cytokines [Box 36-1]. All mediators and cytokines result in vasodilation, capillary refill permeability, mucosal, edema, bronchial smooth muscle contraction, and mucus secretion from mucosal goblet cells. This occurs with airway narrowing and obstruction. This early phase of an asthma attack reaches its maximum within thirty minutes and resolves in one to three hours.
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