Untitled document - Basics of Signal transduction Ligand...

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Basics of Signal transduction Ligand: Molecule that specifically binds to a larger molecule. Ligand binding causes a receptor protein to undergo a change in shape, which sometimes directly activates the receptor which allows it to interact with other cells. The signaling molecule behaves as a ligand. G-Protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): are a group of seven transmembrane proteins which bind signal molecules outside the cell, transduce the signal into the cell and finally cause a cellular response. The GPCRs work with the help of
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a G-Protein which binds to the energy rich GTP. Protein kinases (PTKs): are enzymes that regulate the biological activity of proteins by phosphorylation of specific amino acids with ATP as the source of phosphate, thereby inducing a
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Unformatted text preview: conformational change from an inactive to an active form of the protein. cyclic AMP: is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring into cells the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot pass through the plasma membrane. It is also involved in the activation of protein kinases. What does a cell do when it receives a signal? Cells typically receive signals in chemical form via various signaling molecules. When a signaling molecule joins with an appropriate receptor on a cell surface, this binding triggers a chain of events that not only carries the signal to the cell interior, but amplifies it as well....
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