Animal Nutrition Term Paper.docx - AVS 4402 Nutrient Requirements of Cattle The diet and nutritional requirements of production animals such as cattle

Animal Nutrition Term Paper.docx - AVS 4402 Nutrient...

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AVS 4402 Nutrient Requirements of Cattle The diet and nutritional requirements of production animals such as cattle and sheep, largely impacts the production, reproduction, and lactation. A correct diet balances protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals while maximizing feed and cost. Additionally, a balanced diet exponentially reduces health risks such as acidosis and bloat in ruminants, pregnancy toxemia, ketosis, milk fever, reproductive failure, and difficulty during parturition. In order to strategize a comprehensive diet that meets the nutritional requirements for the given animal at different stages of production, we must use Pearson square, DMI chart, and Dietary Cation Anion Difference to calculate dietary needs and feed intake, for ruminants such as cattle and sheep. Then determining the nutrient requirements for an animal it is important to take some factors into account such as the initial body condition score (BCS) and the desired BCS. If the animal in question has a low BCS, it may have trouble maintaining pregnancy as well as having a reduced litter size in animals such as sheep, goats, and pigs. The average dairy cow should have a BCS of 2.5-4.5, with the ideal at 3.5. The animal should be fed roughly 3% of its body weight for maintenance and up to 5% for weight gain. If the glucose production through propionate is not maintained for the cow during lactation, especially the first 3-6 weeks, the animal may develop ketosis. Ketosis most often occurs several weeks after parturition, when energy demands are at their highest as a result of low caloric and carbohydrate intake. It is important to replace the glucose
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