Key points for CH 27-32 AH2.docx - CHAPTER 27 \u2022 GAS EXCHANGE is the oxygen transport to the cells and carbon dioxide transport away from cells through

Key points for CH 27-32 AH2.docx - CHAPTER 27 • GAS...

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CHAPTER 27 • GAS EXCHANGE is the oxygen transport to the cells and carbon dioxide transport away from cells through ventilation and diffusion. Once ventilation and diffusion exchange these gases in the lungs, blood oxygen is then available to cells by perfusion and diffusion. • PERFUSION is the arterial blood flow through the tissues (peripheral perfusion) and blood that is pumped by the heart (central perfusion) • GAS EXCHANGE takes place in the lung tissue between the alveoli and the lung capillaries, not in the airways. • The lungs are sponge-like, elastic, cone-shaped organs located in the pleural cavity in the chest. • The apex (top) of each lung extends above the clavicle; the base of each lung lies just above the diaphragm. • Breathing occurs through contraction and relaxation of specific chest muscles and the diaphragm, which cause changes in the size and pressure of the chest cavity. Accessory muscles help in this process. • Tissue oxygen delivery through dissociation or unloading from hemoglobin is based on tissues’ need for oxygen • Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is intermittent dyspnea during sleep. • Inspect trachea to determine if there is any deviation, which is a sign of pneumothorax • Endoscopic studies to assess breathing problems include bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, and mediastinoscopy. o In accordance with The Joint Commission’s National Patient Safety Goals, verify the patient’s identity with two types of identifiers before a bronchoscopy. o Assess the patient’s respiratory status every 15 minutes for at least the first 2 hours after undergoing an endoscopic test for respiratory disorders. CHAPTER 28 • The oxygen content of atmospheric air is about 21%. • Oxygen (O2) is a gas essential for life and is used as a drug for relief of hypoxemia (low levels of oxygen in the blood) and hypoxia (decreased tissue oxygenation). • Oxygen (O2) is a gas essential for life and is used as a drug for relief of hypoxemia (low levels of oxygen in the blood) and hypoxia (decreased tissue oxygenation). • Notice the rate and depth of respiration at least every hour for any patient with hypercarbia and CO2 narcosis who is receiving oxygen by mask or nasal cannula. • Use aspiration precautions for any patient with an altered level of consciousness or who has an endotracheal tube.
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• Assess the skin under the mask and under the plastic tubing every shift for patients receiving oxygen by mask. • Assess the skin of the nares and under the elastic band every shift for patients receiving oxygen by nasal cannula. • Use sterile technique when performing endotracheal or tracheal suctioning. • Observe any patient receiving oxygen at greater than a 50% concentration for early symptoms of oxygen toxicity (i.e., dyspnea, nonproductive cough, chest pain, GI upset).
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