quiz 3 study guide.docx - STUDY GUIDE FOR QUIZ 3 Core Bio Fall 2018 What is the difference between the sympathetic nervous system and the

quiz 3 study guide.docx - STUDY GUIDE FOR QUIZ 3 Core Bio...

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STUDY GUIDE FOR QUIZ 3 Core Bio Fall 2018 What is the difference between the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system? What are their common goals? The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for intense physical activity and is often referred to as the fight-or-flight response. The parasympathetic nervous system has almost the exact opposite effect and relaxes the body and inhibits or slows many high energy functions. What do the various neurotransmitters do: Serotonin- Serotonin is an important chemical and neurotransmitter in the human body. It is believed to help regulate mood and social behavior, appetite and digestion, sleep, memory, and sexual desire and function. Epinephrine- Epinephrine , more commonly known as adrenaline, is a hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. Strong emotions such as fear or anger cause epinephrine to be released into the bloodstream, which causes an increase in heart rate, muscle strength, blood pressure, and sugar metabolism. Ach- Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction—in other words, it is the chemical that motor neurons of the nervous system release in order to activate muscles. This property means that drugs that affect cholinergic systems can have very dangerous effects ranging from paralysis to convulsions. Dopamine- In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways, one of which plays a major role in the motivational component of reward-motivated behavior. Histamine- As part of an immune response to foreign pathogens, histamine is produced by basophils and by mast cells found in nearby connective tissues. Histamine increases the permeability of the capillaries to white blood cells and some proteins, to allow them to engage pathogens in the infected tissues. Endorphins- Natural Pain and Stress Fighters. Endorphins are among the brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters, which function to transmit electrical signals within the nervous system. ... Endorphins can be found in the pituitary gland, in other parts of the brain, or distributed throughout the nervous system What are the Recall the pathway: cornea, pupil, lens, retina, optic nerve, thalamus, cortex. a pathway over which a visual sensation is transmitted from the retina to the brain. A pathway consists of an optic nerve , the fibers of an optic nerve traveling through the optic chiasm to the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus, and optic radiations terminating in an occipital lobe.
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  • Fall '19
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