DEVELPMENTAL PSYCH TEST STUDY GUIDE.odt - Developmental Psych Studies development of humans in the following areas \u2022 Physical \u2022 Cognitive \u2022 Social


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Developmental Psych:Studies development of humans in the following areas:PhysicalCognitiveSocialEmotionalTrends in abilities throughout adulthoodYoung adulthood - Time of peak physical developmentIndividuals perform at their best on complex intellectual tasks during midlifePeople are most well-adjusted during late adulthoodFREUD’S THEORYPsycho-sexual development: Process by which libidinal energy is expressed through various erogenous zones at different stages of developmentFocused on:Emotional and social developmentOrigins of psychological traitsParts of personalityIdPresent at birthUnconsciousRepresents biological drives and demands instant gratificationEgoConscious sense of selfSeeks gratification by avoiding social disapprovalSuperegoInternalizes the wishes and morals of a child’s caregivers and behavior of egoPerson is filled with guilt and shame when the judgment is in the negativeStages of Psycho-sexual DevelopmentOral - gratification thru sucking, bitingAnal - ““ thru defecationPhallic - masturbation stageLatency - attention shifts to school/playmates, sexual goes dormantGenital Stages - adult stage that brings desire to have sexual intercourseERIKSON’S THEORYFocuses on:Development of emotional life and psychological traitsSocial relationshipsPlaces emphasis on ego or the sense of selfEach stage is characterized by social relationships and physical maturationEarly experiences affect future developmentsSuccessful resolution of early life crisis bolsters a sense of identityLife crisis: Internal conflict that attends each stage of psycho-social developmentConcept of identity crisis has affected the way parents and teachers deal with teenagersIdentity crisis: Period of inner conflict during which one examines one’s values and makes decisions about one’s life rolesEvaluation of Erikson’s Theory of Psycho-social DevelopmentEmphasis on the importance of human consciousness and choicePortrayal of human beings as prosocial and helpfulPositive outcomes of early life crisis help put people on the path to positive developmentLearning Perspective: BehaviorismClassical conditioningOriginal neutral stimulus elicits the response brought forth by a second stimulusNeutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the second stimulusOperant conditioningOrganism learns to engage in behavior that is reinforcedReinforcement: Process of providing stimuli following responses that increase its frequencyPositive reinforcers: Increase the frequency of behaviors when they are appliedNegative reinforcers: Increase the frequency of behaviors when they are removedExtinction: Results from repeated performance of operant behavior without reinforcementLearning Perspective: Social Cognitive Theory
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