Electrolyte - Calcium.doc - Calcium(Ca 9 – 11 mg/dl(total...

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Calcium (Ca++) 9 – 11 mg/dl (total) 4.5 – 5.5 mEq/L (ionized) Most Abundant Electrolyte in the Body 99% in bone & 1% in ECF Function: Transmission of nerve impulses Myocardial contractions and cardiac conduction Blood clotting Formation of teeth and bone Muscle contractions Regulation: Calcium intake from ingested food (only about 30% absorbed from food) Parathyroid hormone (PTH) i. Increases bone resorption (movement of calcium out of bones), GI absorption of calcium, and renal tubule reabsorption of calcium Calcitonin---produced by the thyroid and stimulated by ↑ calcium levels i. Decreases GI absorption, increases calcium deposition into bone, and promotes renal excretion Vitamin D---formed from ultraviolet light. Also, ingested in diet. i. Important for absorption of Ca++ from the GI tract Hypocalcemia ( leads to increased nerve excitability and sustained muscle contraction---tetany): Causes: o Decreased total calcium: Chronic kidney disease; elevated phosphorus; primary hypoparathyroidism; injury to parathyroid
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