OPIATES Psych 181: Dr. Anagnostaras Lecture 8 Opioids Opiates ● alkaloids found in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) ● [Gk. opion = “poppy juice”] Opioids ● compounds with opiate-like actions, including, but not confined to opiates (e.g., synthetic, endogenous opioids) Opium come from here I Classes . /0p# → /0pio - limited - Include opiate & anything like morphine
Types of opioids 1. Naturally- occurring ● opium ● sap from opium poppy Two major active alkaloids ● morphine ● codeine ① . Opium itself or ingredients can get out of it Main : Morphine ( Io - so b) It store opium 㱺 part of it go bad ⊥ Before : use for pain killer ⊥ Now : surgical anes . until it's extracted & stab lied 48 \ Dry up mucus s erection + Contain atropine t apobmine Raw opium : Paregoric 㱺 Weak ⊥ Before : cough deep . for kids . * Schedule 3
25 x more potent than paregoric Morphine ● Morpheus (god of Dreams) -son of Hypnos ● ~ 10% of opium by weight HO O OH N CH 3 H Morphine Codeine ● methylmorphine ● ~ 0.5% of opium * Schedule I - Oldest - Naturally occurring - Naturally occurring A Opioid : treat pain * Side effects : sleepy ness , motor in c . 㱺 Put kids to sleep ( Pharmacokinetics
2. Semi-synthetics 2. Semi-synthetics Heroin ● diacetylmorphine ● addition of two acetyl groups to morphine ● ~ 10x more potent than morphine ● pharmacological effect usually thought to be identical to morphine ● in brain: heroin > morphine (new data suggest morphine and heroin may have different actions; 1999) 2. Semi-synthetic analgesics ● Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) ● Hydrocodone (Lortab, Vicodin) ● Oxycodone (Percodan, Percocet, Oxycontin) ⊥ Once heroin gets in the brain it becomes morphine 㱺 just get in FASTER than morphine * Schedule I Gone countries ) 㱺 Diamorphine : surgical and . ( Europe ) µ Very slow I Heroin is Morphine - - More lipid sdulahile less lipid Sol . 㱺 Get in brain much faster tapered : Big factor on how addictive the drugs describe dmginthevs . Treatcanarpainn → Very potent . O - tweak potent a → New , most popular treat pain well , among doctors to not produce moderate severe pain nausea , . . . A why popular ? * ⊥ Best side effect profile More available → Become drug abuse .
3. Synthetics Phenylpiperidines ● Fentanyl “china white” ● Carfentanil (Wildnil®) ● Meperidine (Demerol®) (MPPP) Methadone & Congeners ● Methadone (Dolophine®) ● Propoxyphene (Darvon®) Benzomorphans ● Pentazocine (Talwin®) N CH 3 CH 2 C O O CH 3 Pethidine (Meperidine) N H (CH 3 ) 2 Methadone CH 2 C O CH 3 H 3 C H Percodan = oxycodone ⊥ Most popular way to desc . oxycodone ( w/ aspirin ) ① Drugs that made in LAB . STRONGEST ① . Use in medicine ① & }→ aoodsignettedsisfterortoatnens ! ② Stronger than heroin ⑦ ④ ② Commercial 㱺 large animal @ @ no longer strength m f ? in market can turn into vapor & spray into places ( Moscow ) ② .
- Summer '19
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