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Unformatted text preview: Downloaded From : ww w.E a syE ngi nee rin g.n et **Note : Other Websites/Blogs Owners we requested you, Please do not Copy (or) Republish this Material. This copy is NOT FOR SALE. **Disclimers : EasyEngineering does not own this book/materials, neither created nor scanned. we provide the links which is already available on the internet. For any quarries, Disclaimer are requested to kindly contact us. We assured you we will do our best. We DO NOT SUPPORT PIRACY, this copy was provided for students who are financially troubled but deserving to learn. Thank You and God Bless! Downloaded From : Downloaded From : I I [IN FIRST-ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD] ww w.E asy E ngi nee r Revised ,1nd enlJrged by M. t"KJUVIIILH.I M.E. (Mactiine .), l . LMJ,S.T.E., ELI: ti Formerly, Professor in Mech. ,s Faculty of Techn<>logy and Engin\, M. S. University of.Baroda, VADODA!v\ · R. B.E. (Mech. Engg.), LMH.S.T~E. lecturer in Mech. Engg. · B.and B Institute of Technology Vallabh Vidyanagar ANAND ing .ne t REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION: 2011 J Opposite Amul Dairy, Old Civil Court Road ANAND 388 001 Gujarat, India Downloaded From : Downloaded From : ELEMENTARY ENGINEERING DRAWING Edition Edition Second Edition Edition nth Edition h Edition Third fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh 1.984 1985 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Eighth 1990 Ninth Tenth 1991 1.992 1993 1994 1995 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 ww w.E 2000 2000 2001 2002 asy E Revamped) ngi I nee r ISBN 978-93-80358-17-8 ing 9 789380 358178 .ne All rights reserved by the Author. This book or parts thereof may not be reproduced in any form or translated without the written permission of the Author. t Pu!Jlisfteii Bhavinkumar R. Patel and Pradipkumar R. Patel PuMishm 1/txt-.Bor/fcs Opposite Amul Dairy, Old Civil Court Road, Post Box 65 ANAND 388 001 Gujarat, India Phone: (02692) 2562371 Fax: (02692) 240089 E7mail: [email protected];com Website: Laserset Charotar Associates, Anand Printed Repro India Ltd., Mumbai Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Affectionately dedicated to all my and ww w.E asy E ngi nee r ing .ne It gives me plea.~ure·to introduc~ this tex~~book .Qn. Engineering Drawing by Prof. N•. D;. Bhattofthe BirlaVishvakarmaMahavidyalaya to stu.dents of Engineering; Prof. Bhatt ha~ been teaching this subject for over twenty years and has deservedly earned. the}$!ptttation of being. one 4)f the best teachers in the subject. This book coyers the prescribed for the Pre-engineering and FirstY~ar of the Degree course:5 ln Engineering and deals with the Jundafoental subj~ct which have been')re·ate!l by ProCBhatt lucidity. · · t .June 6, '1958. Downloaded From : Downloaded From : From the very early days, man realized that if he had to construct any structure or machine correctly and methodically, he must first record his ideas before starting construction work. These recorded ideas become more vivid and forceful if they are shown on paper in form of a drawing of the structure or machine. Such a drawing will be of very great help to the man who looks after the construction of this structure or machine. Indeed, "technical drawing is the language of engineering Without the good kmJwledge of drawing, an engineer is nowhere and he could not have constructed the various magnificent structures .or intricate machines. Evidently, any one connected in any way, with engineering construction must understand this language of engineers. Technical drawing is, therefore, indispensable today and shall continue to be so as long as engineering and technology continue to be of use in the activities of man. By means of drawing, the shape, size,. finish, colour and construction of any object (no matter how complex) can be de$~f.iP:la~f'iicCurately and clearly. The engineer should develop his skill, in two phases of. \~~lj~it,1 ~r~~i11g; first, he must be. able to draw dearly .. must be proficient in drawing to and rapidly, the freehand technis~:~~,tcnes; $~. scale the instrumental dra"".illgts'1~~]pu~~e>$e of, .. ·. ,pre1,ent volume is to give the basic ;;: /• \; principles of the instrum.~r;i'~~L~K~~tng ?lllY· •· The book covers ~e syllabi in fngipe~ring JJ)ra.wir,ig otc•ri;i~ny University Colleges and Polytechnics in lndi.,l'and has been, writte~.k · fo · in view the difficulties of a beginner in the subject of ;Engineering Drawing; I <a~ .. . hopeful that;this book will serve its purpose very welf; for young and •buddiog engineers. \• I am highly.ipdebted to Prindpal S.B, . Junnarkar for his valualll~ guidance and for his kindness to wri~ a suitable foreword f?r thebook, I am also thankf~l to Prof. V. B. Priyani of Birla Vishvak~rma Mahavidyalaya. fe>rgoing througti thejriitial man~script .and for offering grate£ul· Jo the f~Uowing: !~ constructive su~estions. Fi11ally, (i) The authot;ities of the.Universities of Bombay, Poprta and Gujarijt, and the Department of Technical Edu~ation, Boml:!ay, fol' t~eir kind percn:iission to inclu(Je a few questions set at their examinatiQ!ls. (ii) Mr. N•• M. Paqc~al and Mi'. ~- D. Bhatt fQi' their help in preparing pencil sketches. (iii) Mr. L O~ Bhatt for pr · ing the excellent typed manuscript; (iv) Mr. Ramanbhai ·.C. Patel ()f Charcitar. Book .. . foc.carefu\,proof-reading and for his efforts to see the boq~ out in Pf()P~f tjftle: M ..Jlie ~~~.~· Presf,:authorities for the care and interest shown Jf! the' printing arid set·t1r:vof ,b061t '(vi) Tfi~ Prabhat Process Studio for the promptn~ss and good worlc 9f bJ~k".ma •.. . ; . 8 Any suggestion to improve the value. of ·this bo~k will be gratefullyt•received and will be incorpo~~ted subsequent> e.clitions aft~r due s.crµtiny~ · 0 • ww w.E 9:~ asy E J.,i~el ngi nee r ing June u:: ::p:liffton,, ihe .ne furidamenil::.n:. t D~.:~: inspiration of the Indian stries in a large measure have switched on to the third-angle projection system. So have a vast majority of Technical Institutions. "Elementary Engineering Drawing", too, must keep step with the changes. There was a phased change-over beginning with the .seventh edition. This edition .has completed the change. Nevertheless, the first-angle projection system has not been altogether discarded. The fundamentals of both the systems· are juxtaposed and elucidated. The chapters on (i) · Development of surfaces, (ii) Isometric projection and (iii) Conversion of pictorial views into orthographic views have been treated in some greater depth. This and the increase of the illustrative problems and practice exercises have evidently enlarged the size of the book and inevitably led to a little rise in price. I should not miss this opportunity to record my gratitude to the numerous teachers for their very useful suggestions and the students for their excellent response to the book, without which this edition should not have come into being. January 26, 1970 N. D. BHATT Downloaded From : Downloaded From : vii The first edition was originally published in 1958 and now has entered in its 42nd Edition during 42 years, proves its popularity and utility among the teachers as well as the students of Engineering Institutions of our country. This edition has been entirely revised and enlarged by adding the following four chapters: (1) Screw Threads (2) Screwed Fastenings (3) Riveted Joints and Welded Joints (4) Computer Aided Drafting. It was thought desirable to include this fourth chapter on 'Computer Aided Drafting' which has now acquired an important place in this subject. We are thankful to Or. S. S. Khandare of Y. C. College of Engineering, Nagpur for contributing this chapter. We are also highly obliged to Shri R. C. Patel of Charotar Publishing House, Anand for correcting the Proofs. This book provides a wealth of inforrriati~n a,nd describes an exciting new paradigm and is also a valuable tool for all the Engine<"!ri~g s~udents, who wish to deepen and acquire a sound knowledge of this important subject. (language of Engineers) without which a really satisfactory progress c~nnot be achieved in an)': l:>ranch of Engineering. We shall feel obliged .to receive comments, suggestions and opinions from the readers · to enhance the utility of the book. N. Q. BHATT August 15, 2000 V. M. PANCHAL ww w.E HFTH:TH asy E We are inundated with joy to present before you the FIFTIETH ED1t.ION of this most stan.dard text~book. At the outset, we would like to mention that splendid response to eai'Uer editions .is pr()digious. Despite such favourable responses, it was feltJhat .the utility of the book could be .further enhanced. This is one of the most comprehensive revisions since the book was first published. As a result, all the drawings have b~en ,redrawn with utmost. intelligibility. Many. new· examples, drawings .are incorporated along with .. ~Q,tle new text matter. This text-book is thoroughly revised, extensively. enlarged, comple~~fyt updated. Chapter on. Computer Aided Drafting (CAOr) is entirely rewritten with inclusion of fO ~Jf{Jnteraetive and self-leamingpractice modules, Jhis book accompaniea by a computenco as a novel pedagogical cone.ept, containing 51 sele<I~ed audiovisual ;mimation module~, presented for the. subject of Engineering •Or~vvin~: . } better visualization and understanding We take this opportunity to thank Prof; \f. •M1 Panchal, Former Professof.in •Nlechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M. S. University of Bare>da f~r revising the entire book and adding man.y\rew typical examples; We express OU,(, hearty,, gratitud~ to Prof. Pramod R. Ingle, ~eftµrer in Mechanical Engineering, B and B lnstit~fe of Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar . f()r ·redraw all the drawings with !)tecision, rewriti~g· the chapter on Computer Aide~ /Drafting (CAOr) and revising t~e entire book. · We are also indebted to Prof. R. S. Bhatt, Associate Professor i.n M~chanica! Engineering, Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya {Engineering Colle,ge), Vallabh Vidyanagar,. Anand; Prof. .Mukesh A. Bulsara, Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engineering, G. H. Patel College of Engineering and Technology (GCET), Vallabh Vidyanagar, Prof. N. V. Patel, Ex~Professor, L 0. Engineering College, Ahmedabad who were kind enough to send their suggestions to us for the improvement of the book. We are also grateful to Prof. S. H. Makwaoa, lecturer in Mechanical Engineering, B & B Institute of Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar, who spared no efforts in the..tedious task of diligently correcting the final proofs. We are sincerely thankful to Cognifront, Nasik for preparing a unique CO and Repro India ltd., Mumbai for their hearty co-operation and excellent printing of the book. In spite of all the pains taken, it is possible that some errors may have escaped our attention. We shall be grateful if they are brought to our notice by sending e-mail at [email protected], so that they can be corrected in subsequent edition. We strongly urge the readers to send their comments, suggestions and opinions to enhance the utility of the book. August 24, 2010 PUBLISHERS pf ngi nee r ing .ne t Downloaded From : Downloaded From : tion ................ . Drawing board .............. . T~square ...................• , Set-squares ................. . Drawing instrument box ...... . ( 1 ) . Large-size·. compass with inter chang eable pend! and pen legs . . . . . . 08 (:~) Lengthening bar . : . . . . . . . 08 (3) Small bow compass ..... . (4J Large~size divider ....... . (5) Small bow divider .. , .... ··"·;c,,;:r;;,.;;>2•,..•. (6) Small bow ink,:pen ... . (7) Inking pen . . . . . . . ··if''";':""'0"""',,'·} Scales ........... .. Protractor ..... . French curves . ww w.E asy E Drawing papers , , ....•.... ; . Drawing pencils ....... , ... • .. Eraser (Rubber) . ,. . . . . . • . . .. • . Drawing pins, Clips. or adhesive tapes ...•.•.... , , . • . . 1-13. Sand-paper block .. . . . . .. . .. . 1-14. Duster , , .. 7 •• , '. • , , • • • • • • • • • • 1. -15. Drafting mac~ine ...•.• , . , . . . . 1-16. Roll~N-D.raw . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . 1-1 7. General suggestions for drawing a sheet • . . , .. , . . . .• . . . (1) Cleaning the instruments . (2) Pinning the pap!:!r to .the drawing b~ard .•.... '...•• Border lines ............. . ,/;·. "\1,.t4)\'.'.Su.acing of drawings .. , , . , 1 ·9. 1-10. 1 • 11. 1-12. ngi nee r ing lntroijictt611 , .... : . Lines 'it,: ... ·••· .. . (1 > Urieithi.t::kne?s .. (:2) lnkec(drawings .. . {3) Pencil drawings ......... . 3-1-1. Types of Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1) Outlines . . . . .. . . .. .. .. . . (2} Margin lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . (3) Dimension lines . . . . . . . . . (4) Extension or projection lines (5) Construction lines . . . . . . . (6) Hatching or section lines . (7) Leader or pointer lines . . . (8) Border lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . (9) ·Short-break lines . . . . . . . . . (10) Long-break lines .......•. (11) Hidden or dotted lines . . . . . (12) Ce.ntre lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ne 1.3 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 t 36 36 letters . .. . . letters . . . .. .. . .. . . Dimensioning ....... , . . . . . . . . Dimensioning terms and notations ( 1 ) Dimension lrne • . . . • . . . . . (2) Extension line ....... , . ... (3) Arrowhead, (4) Leader . . . . Placing of dimensions . . . . . . . . . (1} Aligned. system . . . . . (2) Unidirectional system . Unit of dimensioning ... , ..... General rules for dimensioning . Practical hints on dimensioning Exercises Ill ....... , .. . .. . .. . . stn1Plf•• .:;1·ro1,1> 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 (2) 3-3. 3-4. 3-5. 35 3-6. 3-7. 35 3-8. 35 36 37 37 40 40 41 41 .41 41 42 42 42 43 43 48 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : 4· L 4-3: 4~4. 5-0. 5~1. 5-2. 5-3. 5-4. 5.~s. 5-6. 5-7. 5-8. 5-9, Introduction .. ., ..... ,. . .. . . Scales • . • • . . • . . . • . . • • . • . . . (1) Engineer's, (2) Graphical scale {3) Representative fraction . . . Scales on drawings . . . • • . . . . . Types of scales •..•..•... : . . . (1) Plain scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2) Diagonal scales . . . • . . . . . . (3} Comparative scales ... , . . . ( 4) Vernier scales . . . . . . • . . . . . (5) Seate of chords . . . . . . . • . . Exercises IV • . . . • . . . .. . . . . • . . . 51 51 52 52 52 52 lntroduction ..........•...•. Bisecting a line . • • . . • . . . To draw perpendiculars ... To draw parallel lines •... To divide a line To divide a To bisect an ww w.E asy E To construct squares .......•. To construct regular polygons Special methods of drawing regular polygons •..•. Regular polygons inscribed in circles . . . . . . . . . • • . . . . . • • . To draw regular figures using T-square' and set-squares . • • . . To draw tangemts . . . . . . . . . . . . ; lengths of arcs .. . . .. • . . . • . • . Circles and in contact . • . Inscribed circles •. . . . . •. •. • 52 55 59 61 65 66 82 84 86 88 89 91 92 94 98 ngi nee r ..................... 130 Spirals ........... , •.... , ·.'· , .. 1 3 3 .•• 1 34 . Archernedian spiral 6~5-2. Logarithmic or equiangular spiral .. , . .. . . ... 1 36 . ... *' .. 138 Helix • .. .. • . . • .. . )\,method of drawiryg a helical curve , ..... · .•....... 138 Helical springs .... ~ ......... 139 Screw threads . . . ..•.•.... 1 41 Helix upon a .......... 142 .....•.... 143 ............. 144 ing 7-0. 7~1. 7-2. 7-2-l; Introduction ...•......••.•.. 151 Loci of points .. , ........... 151 Simple mechanisms .•....••.• 153 The slider crank mechanism ... 153 8-0 . lntrodµc:tion •..•. '. •• ~ ....... 169 Prindple of projection ......•. 169 Methods of projection ••.••.. 169 Orthographic projection • . . • . 169 Planes of projection . . . • . . ·1 71 Four quadrants ••..•......•.. 1 71 .8-1, .ne t ( 1) Simple slider crank mechanism 154 (2) Offset slider crank mechanism 154 7-2-2. A four-bar mechanism ....•... 156 Exercises VII ........... ; .... 166 8-6. First-angle projection •••...... 171 Third-angle projection •....... 172 8-8. Reference line •.......•...•• 1 73 8-9. BJ.S. code of practice . . . • ... 1 77 8-10. Typical Problems .•....•...•.. 1 77 Exercises VIII . . . • . . . . . . • .... 183 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : 9-0. Introduction ................ 189 9-3. 9-1. A point is situated in the first quadrant . . . . . ... . . . . . . . 189 9-4. 9-2. A point is situated in the 9-5. second quadrant ............ 190 10-0. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .... 195 10-1 . Line parallel to one or both the planes ............. 1 10-2. line contained by one or both the planes ........ . 10-3. Line perpendicular to v111::,.,1:,:1·,,,. the planes ...... . 10-4. 10-5. ww w.E 10-6. asy E !ntroductibn Types of .i~xiliary and views ''0\ •••••••• 11-2. Projection df2 ,a point Qn an auxiliary pl~ne .. 11-3. ProjectiO!'JS ;Of }fo~s -- ·' ···,01 " by th~(use of auxiliary ) (2) 12-2. Traces 12~3. General conclusions (1) Traces . .. . . . . .. . . ...... 258 (2) Projections .............. 258 12-4. Projections of planes parallel to one of the reference planes 2 5 9 {1} When the plane is parallel to the H.P. .............. 259 13-0. Introduction . . ........ , .... 2 71 13-l. Types of solids .............. 2 71 (1) Polyhedra ............... 2 71 A point is situated in the third quadrant . . . .......... 190 A point is situated in the fourth quadrant ....... 191 General conclusions ......... 191 Exercises IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 10-7. Line contained by a plane perpendicular to both the reference planes , . . . . . . . .... 205 True length of a straight line and its inclinations with the reference planes . . . . . . ...... 2 06 of a line .............. 209 l\,/1;,,th,,rlc of determining a line ............. 21 l line, the nr,lii><·tin,fii(. which are to xy .... ,. .... 2 12 of a line ... 21 2 problems 21 4 . ............. 237 ngi nee r determine\true length of a line .. A ................ 2 4 7 obtain pofot-view of a line an.d edge~yiew of a plane ..... 248 Tq deter111ine true shape of a plan~ tigt,tre . . . . . . . . . . . ... 2 5 o Exercises XI • • . ...•...••. 2 5 3 ing .ne t inclined <to(one plane and perpendicular to the other 260 (1) Plane, inclined to the H.P. and perpendicular to the V.P. ...... ,. .. .. . . 260 (2) Plane, inclined to the V.P. & perpendicular to the H.P. 261 12-6. Projections of oblique planes . 261 Exercises XII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 {2) Solids of revolution ...... 273 13-2. Projections of solids in simple positions ..............2 7 4 Exercises Xlll(i) . . . . . ........ 2 79 Downloaded From : Downloaded From : Table of Contents xi Projections of solids with axes inclined to one of the reference planes and parallel to the other ..•••... 2 79 13-3-1 . Axis inclined to the V.P. and parallel to. the H.P. .•...•••. 2 80 13-3.'.;t. Axis inclined to the H.P. and parallel to the V.P. ••..•.•••• 282 13-3. 14-1. ww w.E asy E 13~4. 13-5. ngi nee r .. .. 334 ..... 338 ing (4) ·.... 323 . ... ; .. 326 14-3. Projections of solids witb axes inclined to both the H.P. and the V.P. • . . .. • . . .. . .. ; 2 8.6 ProjeGtions of spheres • s ••••• 300 (1). Spheres in .contact with eacb other . (2) Unequal. spheres . • . . ... 303 Exercises Xlll(ii) ••• , , ...• .•. ; 309 .ne .. 338 t parallel to ...... 326 (3) 15-1. 15-2. Section plane parallel to the axis ......• , ....... 326 Section plane inclined to the base ; ............ 326 Introduction ; ........... , .. 351 Methods of development .... 352 (1) Pa.tall.el-line development 352 (2) Radial-line development . 352 (3) Triang1.1lation development 352 (4) Approximate method •.•. 352 Developments of lateral surfaces of right solids ...... 3 52 15-2-1. 15-2-2. 15-'2·3. 15·2~4. :J 5·2-5. 15-3. 15-4. Cube ..........•.•.......•. Prisms . . . ....·.............. . Cylinders ...... .; . . . .•. , • 35.6 Pyramids .... ; . . . . . .. ~ .. 360 Cone ......... •.... , •.. ; ...• 365 Development.of transition pieces ; .. , Spheres . .•• . • . . • . . , ... ; ... 376 Exercises XV ............ .. Downloaded From : Downloaded From : 16-0. 16--1. 16-2. '17-2. 1 1 Introduction .. , . . . . ....... 381 Line of intersection ......... 381 Methods of d...
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