- How does the “Roman language of art” continue to be...

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Art History 209: Early Medieval Art Notes: Tuesday, August 27, 2019 Two main themes: when looking at pieces of art - Religious, social and economic rolls - Process of creating work Notes: Thursday, August 29, 2019 The End of Antiquity Part I : Dura Europos and Religion in the Late Roman Empire Dura Europos - Major trends The End of Antiquity Themes: - How does the “Roman language of art” continue to be used in the late empire?
- How do the different religions found in the late Roman empire use visual imagery to express their religious beliefs?
- What, if any, distinction can be made between secular and sacred art in the late Roman empire? o Relates closes to building and artwork in secular context. How those things interact and why
- Background o 27 BC Octavian declaring himself o Vast empire o 191, murder of emperor. After this the emperor never holds same power o New empire rules for 40 years o 235 things were not good. Next 40 years it was a succession of very short lived emperors, taken from military rather than royalty family o Turmoil politically o Dura Europos is on the edge of empire - This time we are now looking at a time where there is turmoil Religion in the Roman Empire - The imperial cult o The Gemma Augustea, o Idea of divine emperor o Loyalty through sacrifices - Religious pluralism and multiplicity o The Parabiago plate, silver o Many gods and goddesses o Easy to accept new gods o Inclusive system o Started to change in 2 nd century o Cults from eastern empire Not easy to include Have options of who you want to worship - Centrality of images rather than scripture o Cult statues of Glycon and other savior gods o Images are very important to religion rather than scripture o Essential you had statues as a symbol of god - How does Christianity really fundamentally challenge these things? o Exclusive religion You can’t worship other gods o No images of god o Challenges imperial cult, God is above everyone else, you don’t worship emperor o Refusing to follow the practices of the imperial cult o Politically subversive, exclusive religion, scripture is central City Plan, Dura Europos - Changed many times - Romans had controlled it since 165, then in 256 the Persians attack. - They buried the town - Not a big town - Many different temples everywhere
- Close proximity, everything happening at the same time - Site was rediscovered in 1930’s - Plan of synagogue and surrounding buildings 1932-1933 o Residential house o Converted house - Interior view, assembly room, synagogue, Dura Europos mid 3 rd century o Main wall, central focus, shrine for torus o Sacred text of Judaism o Early paintings 240 - Detail of paintings on west well, assembly room, synagogue, Dura Europos - Ark of the Convenient, west wall, assembly room, synagogue, Dura Europos o How does the text get translated?

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