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© 2019 Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 583 Introduction Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) represent the most common infectious disease among children. A healthy child could develop URTI about 6 to 8 per year. URTI is an acute illness range from a self-limited, mild disease to a life-threatening condition. URTIs are mostly viral in origin. Viral agents like Rhinovirus and Adenovirus. Most commonly happening during cold winter months. It’s the leading cause of missed days at school and unnecessary medical healthcare which require a great cost on both society and healthcare facilities. [1] Majority of URTI patient are evaluated in outpatient settings. [2] Most cases of URTI only needs reassurance, education and symptomatic treatment. [3,4] One common ineffective practice in pediatric setting is prescribing antibiotics for URTI which are mostly viral in origin. [5-7] Antibiotic is one of the most commonly prescribed drug for URTI in primary health care clinics. [8-10] The American Academy of Pediatrics released three basic principles for effective use of antibiotic in treating pediatric URTIs. These are accurate diagnosis, consideration of risk versus benefits, and recognize Parents awareness toward antibiotics use in upper respiratory tract infection in children in Al‑Qassim region, Saudi Arabia Mohammed A. Alsuhaibani 1 , Renad S. AlKheder 2 , Jumanah O. Alwanin 2 , Marwa M. Alharbi 2 , Malak S. Alrasheedi 2 , Rania F. Almousa 2 1 Department of Pediatric, College of Medicine, 2 Qassim College of Medicine, Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia A BSTRACT Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate parents’ awareness toward antibiotics use in upper respiratory tract infection in children. Methods: This cross‑sectional study conducted in Al‑Qassim using validated and translated questionnaire whish was distributed using what’s app. over a period of 3 months, extended from May 2018 to July 2018. Results: The number of respondents were 405, majority 81% chose physicians as the main source of information about antibiotic use. Forty‑four percent of parents agreed that most URTIs are viral in origin and self‑limiting without needing antibiotics. However, 19% of parents believed that antibiotics should be given to all children who have a fever. Fifty two percent were aware that inappropriate use of antibiotics reduces antibiotic efficacy and drives bacterial resistance. Sixty percent of participants chose antibiotics as the treatment they anticipated to be recommended. Fever was the dominant symptom among others of URTI, that would make (21.7%) always ask physicians to prescribe antibiotics. Parents who never asked paediatricians to prescribed antibiotics for their children were (36.5%). The attitude and practice of the participants were associated with the number of children they had; parents with five children or more had a lower attitude and practice score. Conclusion: this study found that majority of the participant were educated but with poor attitude and practice.
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