PS201 - Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Conditional...

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Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Conditional Argument: contains at least one premise that is what is called a conditional statement. → a conditional statement is one in which it is claimed that something is or will be the case provided that some other situation obtains-- sometimes called hypothetical situations because they say what would happen if, hypothetically, something else were to happen ↳if x then y Example: If I win the lottery, then I will retire in the Bahamas >asserts that on the condition that I win the lottery something else will happen >the conditional claim that follows the word if is called the antecedent >the second part that follows the word then is called the consequent, meaning comes after Sufficient Conditions: is a state of affairs that, once true, is enough for something else to be true. → if X is sufficient for Y, then if X is true, Y is true. Necessary Conditions: a state of affairs that must be true in order for something else to to be true but is not enough to make something else true. →if X is necessary for Y, then if X is not true, Y is not true. Example: Being a bachelor is a sufficient condition for being male. >if something is a bachelor, then we know with absolute certainty that it is a male. >if someone is male we cant conclude they are a bachelor bc it is not certain they are a bachelor >being male is necessary for being a bachelor, but not sufficient for being a bachelor.

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