Chapter 4 Notes Society - Society – people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture - Gerhard Lenski o Importance of technology in shaping any society - Karl Marx o Social conflict that arises as people work within an economic system to produce material goods - Max Weber o Power of ideas shapes society - Emile Durkheim o Different ways that traditional and modern societies hang together Section 4.1 - Gerhard Lenski: Society and Technology (4.1 describe how technological development has shaped the history of human societies) - Lenski uses the term Sociocultural evolution – changes that occur as a society gains new technology o With simple technology – Tuareg have little control over nature and can support only a small number of people o With complex technology (cars and cell phones) – more productive and can support hundreds of millions of people - Inventing or adopting new technology sends ripples of change throughout a society - More technology a society has, the faster it changes - Technologically simple societies change very slowly (Summing up chart) Hunting and Gathering Societies - Hunting and gathering – making use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food o w/ little control over environment, spend most of their time looking for game and collecting plants to eat - just a few dozen members - nomadic – moving to find new sources of vegetation or follow migrations - depend on family to obtain and distribute food, protect members, and teach way of life to children o healthy adults = most work o women = vegetation o men = hunting - shaman – spiritual leader - very close to being socially equal - simple weapons, but rarely wage war – main enemy is nature
Horticultural and pastoral societies - horticulture – the use of hand tools to raise crops o hoe to work in soil, digging stick to punch holes in ground for seeds - pastoralism – the domestication of animals - today’s societies that mix horticulture and pastoralism can be found in south America, Africa, and Asia - populations expanded from dozens to hundreds - material surplus – more resources than are needed to feed the population - horticultural and pastoral societies are more socially diverse b/c their members engage in a wider range of work - have greater inequality - religion differs among types of societies o hunters/gatherers – many spirits inhabit the world o horticulturalists – one God o pastoral – God directly involved in well-being of entire world (roots of Judaism and Christianity) Agrarian societies - agriculture – large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources o “dawn of civilization” - animal-drawn plows – farmers could cultivate bigger fields o make soil more fertile - expanded in size and population - more specialization - money as common standard of exchange (old barter system abandoned) - extreme social inequality o large number = peasants or slaves who do most work o men = position of social dominance -
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- Spring '17
- mieko yamada