Chapter 17: •What were the different approaches to the Reconstruction of the Confederate states? •Northern Industry Civil war elevated the power of “captains of industry” in the north and southern plantation elites lost their power. During war north dominated congress passed tariffs which doubled the import duties. It helped northern industries to flourish. First transcontinental railroad was built between north and central parts from Omaha Nebraska to Sacramento, California. Homestead act of 1862 gave 160 acres to settlers for free. The sale of federal lands to states provided funds to create colleges of “agriculture and mechanic arts” such measures helped stimulate the North’s economy in the years after the civil war.•Southern Destruction The postwar south was completely devastated, along the path of union army, the entire land was completely burned out. Throughout the south property values collapsed. Confederate money and bonds were worthless. Most railroads were damaged, cotton that escaped destruction was seized by federal troops. Emancipation wiped out $4 billion investment in slaves. The great age of expansion in the cotton industry was over. Sugar crop and tobacco also met the same fate. Old rice industry in South Carolina and Georgia never recovered after war. The emotional devastation caused by the war was worse than physical destruction. Many families lost husbands or sons and many lost their limbs. •Freedman's Bureau The Freedman’s Bureau was a congressional support agency providing food, clothing, and education for freed slaves. Ex-slave states were divided into districts that were managed by assistant commissioners. Despite its benefits, the breau failed to establish the free slaves as landowners. It organized the African American vote for the Republican Party, creating great animosity toward the bureau in the south. Even though slaves were emancipated in the south, their integration into Southern society would lead to conflicts with whites over land ownership, political rights, and their place in society. •Lincoln 10% Plan Lincoln believed that seceded states should be restored to the union quickly and easily with “Malice toward none, with charity for all”. Lincoln’s “10% plan” allowed southerners, excluding high-ranking confederate officers and military leaders, to take an oath promising future loyalty to the Union and an end to slavery.