Midterm 2019.docx - 1 A&B The \u2033Big Bang\u2033 is our current best model for the origin and evolution of the Universe Sequentially starting with the

Midterm 2019.docx - 1 A&B The u2033Big Bangu2033 is our...

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1.A&B: The ″Big Bang″ is our current best model for the origin and evolution of the Universe. Sequentially, starting with the moment of the ″Big Bang″ very briefly (in bullet points) explain the evolution of the Universe. Address the formation of matter, expansion, cooling and the first cycle of stellar formation. In order: 1) An explosion of pure energy 13.8 billion years ago 2)Expansion and cooling causes condensation (E=mc 2 ) 3) Protons forms within a few seconds. 4) Fusion of these into some Me (5% or so by count) and traces of Li, Be, B 5) Electrons began to attach to these atomic nuclei, to form neutral atoms. 6) After cooling for about 380 000 years, atoms began to bond (the Universe becomes transparent to the passage of light) 7) Gravitational compression of atoms and derived molecular form to create the first stars after 100 to 200 million years 8)Through nucleosynthetic processes, all elements reaching up to Iron on the periodic table were created in the stars, until it collapsed into a super-nova explosion, where the elements beyond iron are formed. OR *The largest of stars explode as supernovate at the end What are the major elements and minerals in the crust, mantle and Earth as a whole: Earth made of: Iron (Fe) 32%, Oxygen 30%, Silicon 15%, Magnesium 13,9%, 8,8% remaining 88 elements. Why little iron? It has been largely distributed to depth in the core of the Earth. 2.What can we learn from HOT-SPOTS TRACKS (e.g. Hawaii)
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  • Fall '09
  • ALFONSOMUCCI
  • Midterm, short-answer, Epsc201

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