LandSynopticCode - LAND STATION SURFACE SYNOPTIC CODE FM...

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C — 1 September 3, 2007 LAND STATION SURFACE SYNOPTIC CODE FM 12-IX SYNOP I. LAND STATION SURFACE SYNOPTIC CODE FORMAT The instructions for encoding the land station surface synoptic code is found in the Federal Meteorological Handbook (FMH) Number 2. There are two basic forms of land station surface synoptic reports, one of which is the complete form and the other is the shortened form. The complete form is referred to as the primary (or main) synoptic , the 6-hourly report , or SYNOP . The primary synoptic is reported at the standard hours of observation which are: 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC. The shortened form is referred to as the intermediate synoptic or the 3-hourly report . The intermediate synoptic is reported at the standard hours for the intermediate observations which are: 0300, 0900, 1500, and 2100 UTC. The following examples show the symbolic form of the message for the main synoptic reports for the U.S. stations in WMO Region IV (Continental U.S., Canada, and Alaska, Caribbean, Central America, Mexico, and the Bahamas). Other WMO regions are: Region I — Africa; Region II — Asia; Region III — South America; Region V — Southwest Pacific; Region VI — Europe; Region VII — Antarctica. Each of the examples shows the maximum number of data groups. Very few reports will use all of the groups. For example, only at a coastal station would the section 222 (wave information) be included, and even that station might not include all of the groups in the 222 section. Also, individual groups may be left out of an observation for a number of reasons. Different regions may have requirements which will include groups or exclude groups, principally in section 333. The format for a primary synoptic report from a land station in WMO Region IV is shown below. _____________________________________________________________________________ A. SYMBOLIC FORM OF THE MESSAGE 1. Report Format for WMO Region IV M i M i M j M j YYGGi w IIiii i R i X hVV Nddff (00fff) 1s n TTT 2s n T d T d T d 3P o P o P o P o 4PPPP 5appp or 29UUU or 4a 3 hhh 6RRRt R 7wwW 1 W 2 8N h C L C M C H (9GGgg) or 7w a w a W a1 W a2
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C — 2 September 3, 2007 222// (0s n T w T w T w ) 1P wa P wa H wa H wa 2P w P w H w H w 3d w1 d w1 d w2 d w2 4P w1 P w1 H w1 H w1 5P w2 P w2 H w2 H w2 70H wa H wa H wa 333 (0C s D L D M D H) 1s n T x T x T x 2s n T n T n T n 3Ejjj 4E'sss 5j 1 j 2 j 3 j 4 (j 5 j 6 j 7 j 8 j 9 ) 7R 24 R 24 R 24 R 24 8N s Ch s h s 9S p S p s p s p 555(national code groups) _____________________________________________________________________________ B. DEFINITION OF GROUPS 1. Section 1 This section is standard for all stations transmitting synoptic reports in WMO Region IV. M i M i M j M j YYGGi w - Bulletin Header and Date/Time Group As the reports are collected from various stations they are reformatted (by computer) into bulletins, with each bulletin containing reports from specific stations. The above two groups will be included only as the first line of the text, the bulletin header . The bulletin following contains only land station SYNOP reports which were taken at the same time and which use the same units for reporting wind speed .
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  • Fall '07
  • Alcorn
  • Precipitation, Snow, code table, WMO Region IV

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