atmo324-07-asmt5 - this compare with the rate of deep-water...

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ATMO 324: Problem Set 5 ( due Nov. 28 ) Chapters 8 & 11: History of Earth’s Climate and Natural Climate Change 1. (Hartman 8.1) Discuss the difficulties with interpreting a curve like Fig. 8.1 or extrapolating it into the future. 2. (Hartman 8.2) One of the earliest examples of primitive humans, Australopithecus , lived in Africa between about 4 and 1 million years ago. Hominids began using stone tools about 2 million years ago. Place Australopithecus and tool use in their proper place in Fig. 8.4. For what fraction of Earth history have hominids been around? 3. (Hartman 8.6) Estimate the rate of freshwater mass production (kg s -1 ) by the melting of the North American ice sheet, assuming that its melting took 500 years. (Use Fig. 8.8 to obtain the mass of North American ice sheet during the last ice age.) How does
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Unformatted text preview: this compare with the rate of deep-water formation in the North Atlantic, which is estimated to be about 2 x 10 10 kg s-1 at present? 4. (Hartman 11.1) Show that if the planetary albedo is 0.3, a change in solar constant of 1 W m-2 results in a global-mean climate forcing of 0.175 W m-2. 5. (Hartman 11.2) The current magnitude of the greenhouse effect is measured by the difference between the emission from the surface and the emission from the top of the atmosphere, G = " T s 4 # T e 4 $ 150 W m-2 . What would be the required magnitude of the greenhouse effect to maintain the surface temperature at 288 K if the solar constant were reduced by 30%? By what distance would the effective emission level of the atmosphere need to rise if the lapse rate is approximately 6 K km-1 ?...
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