Unformatted text preview: this compare with the rate of deep-water formation in the North Atlantic, which is estimated to be about 2 x 10 10 kg s-1 at present? 4. (Hartman 11.1) Show that if the planetary albedo is 0.3, a change in solar constant of 1 W m-2 results in a global-mean climate forcing of 0.175 W m-2. 5. (Hartman 11.2) The current magnitude of the greenhouse effect is measured by the difference between the emission from the surface and the emission from the top of the atmosphere, G = " T s 4 # T e 4 $ 150 W m-2 . What would be the required magnitude of the greenhouse effect to maintain the surface temperature at 288 K if the solar constant were reduced by 30%? By what distance would the effective emission level of the atmosphere need to rise if the lapse rate is approximately 6 K km-1 ?...
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- Fall '08
- North American ice, American ice sheet