exam 3.docx - t Chapter 6 Descriptive research The purpose...

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t Chapter 6 Descriptive research - The purpose is to describe the characteristics or behaviors of a given population in a systematic and accurate fashion - Is conducted to provide information about the physical, social, behavioral, and economic or psychological characteristics among some groups of people - May be used to provide government agencies and other groups specific data concerning social problems 3 Types of descriptive research Survey research – the most common type used in every social and behavioral science - Used to inquire people’s attitudes, lifestyles, behaviors, etc. - The goal is to provide a description of people’s behaviors, thoughts, or feelings - In most survey research, a questionnaire is completed or interview face to face - Cross-sectional survey- a single group of respondents or a cross section of the population is surveyed which provide important characteristics of the group and if it’s more than one group it can show how groups differ in characteristics - Successive independent samples survey design – two or more samples of respondents answer the same questions at different points in time - this is often used in test scores for standardized testing - different individuals in each sample but conclusions can be drawn about how people have changed - Longitudinal or panel survey design – a single group of respondents is questioned more than once - Changed in their behavior can be studied but problems occur when the respondents who were initially surveyed aren’t reached for follow up sessions Demographic Research - Describing and understanding patterns of basic life events and experiences such as birth, marriage, divorce, employment, migration, and death - Examples are why people have the number of children they do or death rates or predictors of divorce Epidemiological Research - Is used to study the occurrence of disease and death in different groups of people (depression, alcoholism, child abuse, and schizophrenia - Psychologists study because it explains how behaviors and lifestyles can cause death and illness and because some illnesses describe the incidence of psychological disorders 3 criteria - Descriptions of the data should be accurate, concise, and understandable - Raw data – the most accurate description of a set of data would involve a table of raw data which is all participants scores on all measures
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- Numerical methods or graphical methods - summarize data in the form of numbers such as percentages or means. Graphical data involves presenting data in graphical or pictorial form Frequency distribution - Table that summarizes raw data by showing the number of scores that fall in each of several categories - Simple frequency distribution- indicates the number of participants who obtained each score, scores are arranged from lowest to highest, and the number of frequency of each score is shown. It is easy to see the range of answers and which score occurred most frequently - Ground frequency distribution - shows the frequency of subsets of scores, is used when
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