446_01c_test4_soln - METR 446 Test 4 December 7 2001 Name...

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METR 446 Test # 4 Name: Solution December 7, 2001 1) (10 pts) Describe in words what flux transmittance is. Flux transmittance is simply the ratio of the irradiance leaving a layer of the atmosphere to the irradiance entering it. 2) (5 pts) To derive an expression for the equilibrium ozone number density, we assumed that some of the reactions taking place in the stratosphere were much faster than others. Which of the following reactions did we assume proceeded very quickly, and which did we assume were relatively slow? O + O 2 + M Æ O 3 + M (a) O 3 + O Æ 2O 2 (b) O 2 + h ν Æ 2O (c) O 3 + h ν Æ O 2 + O (d) Reactions (a) and (d) occur much faster than (b) and (c). The result is that every time an oxygen atom is created by reaction (c), it is cycled between (a) and (d) several times before being removed by (b). 3) (10 pts) At what time of year is the stratospheric “ozone hole” over Antarctica most pronounced, and why? During the polar night (i.e., winter) polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form and help convert the non-reactive “reservoir” species containing chlorine into HOCl and Cl 2 . These species
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