Hegel – the whole is more than the sum of the parts. The whole determines the nature of the parts. Parts cannot be understood if considered in isolation from the whole. Parts are dynamically interrelated or interdependent. Aristotle – the whole is more than the sum of the parts Descartes – Discours de la Methode : “break down every complex problem as many separate (isolate simple elements as might be possible) Bertalanffy – the system theory of the organism, which analyzes holism. (sum of parts alone cannot explain the whole, the whole is different and does something different with all of its parts together) General Systems Theory – wholeness (the whole is greater than the sum of its parts) differentiation (systems bring together components with different properties order (systems operate on hierarchical levels) equifinality (objectives can be achieved with varying inputs and in different ways) progression (systems evolve in stages with time) primitiveness (generic components assembled in optimum relationships)
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general systems theory, isolate simple elements, different properties order, tier hierarchy relationships, individual managers Holistic