bus2700 EXAM_2_REVIEW2

bus2700 EXAM_2_REVIEW2 - EXAM 2 REVIEW: Aristotle (384-322...

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EXAM 2 REVIEW: Aristotle (384-322 BC) o “the whole is more than the sum of its parts.” Descartes’ (1596-1650) o “break down every complex problem into as many separate (isolated) simple elements as might be possible.” o Understanding component parts of systems during the Scientific Revolution. Frederick G.W. Hegel (1770-1831) o The whole is more than the sum of the parts o The whole determines the nature of the parts o Parts cannot be understood if considered in isolation from the whole o Parts are dynamically interrelated or interdependent Ludwig von Bertalanffy (late 1920”s) o System theory of the organism, analyzes holism General Systems Theory- formulated by Bertalanffy and wanted to create theories that would benefit systems across multiple disciplines. o Wholeness- the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. o Differentiation- systems bring together components with different properties. o Order- systems operate on hierarchical levels. o Equifinality- objects can be achieved with varying inputs and in different ways. o Progression- systems evolve in stages with time. o Primitiveness- generic components assembled in optimum relationships. Cybernetics- the interaction of people and machines. The ideas of system theory and cybernetics have shown how closed systems can be expanded into open systems through feedback and information exchange with the environment. o Founded by Norbert Wiener in 1948 System- dictionary: a set or arrangement of things so related or connected as to form unity or organic whole. o Book: a goal-driven set of elements and their purposely oriented, structured relations that produce measurable results outside the system, despite obstacles. Goal-driven systems- processes are explicit Goal-seeking systems- information-based systems that aid in decision-making through optimization mathematical models like linear programming. The complexity of “holistic” management is much bigger than the complexity of
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bus2700 EXAM_2_REVIEW2 - EXAM 2 REVIEW: Aristotle (384-322...

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