WW2 War at Home – Economic Mobilization
boosted by fed spending, US economy emerges from depression; 16 million enlist in
armed forces opens jobs for women, people of color; helps lead to 2
migration with 1.5 million blacks heading north.
@ Normandy –
success in Africa & stalemate on eastern front, allies plan to invade western front; Hitler aware, but not knowing where
US British Intel played on Hitler suspicion of invasion at Calais.
Invasion @ Normandy June 4 1944 –
200,000 allied troops storm
beaches, largest amphibious landing in military history; 50,000 allied dead, 200,000 Germans; war in Europe over less than year after
Battle of the Bulge –
Dec/Jan 1944-45, last German offensive, Nazis attempt to starve off defeat, increase tensions btn soviets
& US about Europe’s future.
Dresden Firebombing –
allied air strikes against Germany destroy Dresden later seen as
VE Day –
may 8 1945 victory.
btn Churchill, Stalin, US.
Battle of Midway –
advances, seen as turning point in pacific war, us gradually pushes Japs back to Japan.
Firebombing of Japan –
afraid to invade Japan,
devastating for both sides, US begins massive firebombing summer 1945 killing over million Jap civilians.
German blitz of London, 50,000 casualties, allied in Dresden 225,000 dead in night.
Camps in WW2 –
Japanese internment, over
100,000 Japs & Jap Americans put into concentration camps in US;
anti Jew campaigns in 30s, expand to eliminate
Jews, US slow to act due to anti-Semitism within US itself; 6 million Jews dead, 4-5 non million in German camps.
WW2 Stats –
50 mil killed, US 16 mil serve 400,000 killed, only one without significant civilian dead, 86% axis casualties, 10+ mil from holocaust,
10 mil Chinese starved by Japs, 20+mil Soviets, 10+mil
civilians, 1/9 population.
Bipolar war –
good/bad, capitalism/democracy v
Truman Doctrine –
provide economic, military aid, to govts threatened by communists, Greece/turkey 400 million aid,
globalizes US foreign policy.
Marshall Plan –
economy recovery for west Europe, billions in direct US aid to shore up industrial
democracies against Soviets.
National Security Act 1947 -
coordinate military, intel, defense planning, Natl Sec Council, Dept
Defense, CIA, basis for covert cold war.
Chinese Revolution –
Mao Tse-Tung & communists gain control of China 1949, Truman
attacked for losing China & being soft on communism, reinforces wrong view that communism is monolithic – no room for nationalism
in bipolar cold war worldview.
Korean War –
NK invades SK June 25 1950; since Truman “lost China”, pressured to enter war to
contain communism, US believes USSR, Chinese behind war, again ignoring question of nationalism; Mac Arthur attempts rollback
communists, China enters war leading to 2 year stalemate.
CIA & Cuba -
1959 Castro & communist rev, Castro seizes billions of