Great Strike of 1877,
RR workers facing more cuts in pay, hours begin strike, becomes national strike, first major labor battle of
the new era, public sided with railroads, fed. Gov working closely with railroad owners, intervenes to put down the strike, pulls
troops out of south.
The Great Depression:
cause- The stock market crash of 1929 along with bank failures, Lack of gov't
oversight and intervention, gov't intervention was believed to be against gov't regulation of the economy.
dropping, housing, construction down, consumption down, inventories rising, rampant stock market speculation.
Unemployment up 10% since the crash.(2% to 12%).
Hoover is blamed for doing nothing and in 1932 defeated by FDR.
Unemployment reaches 25% in the mid 30's.
Farmers, African Americans-lose industrial jobs,
forced out of workplace by men are hardest hit by the depression.
The Dust Bowl
1933, droughts, ecological disaster,
flood, massive migrate to Cali, bad since already in depression. Hardest hit farmers, AA’s, women forced out of work for men.
cause- the great depression and election of FDR. FDR restore confidence in economy, gov, country, before enacting any
legislation. The 3 guiding principles of the new deal were to 1) stop the panic, 2) economic planning, 3) relief.
panic: Emergency Banking Legislation.
(2) Economic Planning: National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) coordinates planning,
production, and pricing in industry.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) does the same as NIRA but for farming.
(3) relief- Early
Federal Job Programs: Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), Public Works Administration (PWA).
(1935) seeks to strengthen labor support, improve working conditions through unionization.
- ends economic
panic, restores confidence in economy and gov't.
Unemployment drops from 13Mil to 9Mil in FDR's 1st Term.
- 13th: Outlawed Slavery (1865),
14th: Defines citizenship: prohibits gov't from taking life, liberty, or property w/out
"due process of the Law"(1868),
15th: Provide black males voting right, but w/ lots of loopholes, no means of enforcement (1869).
19th- Women’s suffrage(1918).
Immigration and Urbanization-
Immigration waves from 1830-1860: over 5 million new
immigrants. 2Mil for Ireland, 1.5 from Germanic States; Led to Anti-Irish discrimination.
The new wave of immigrants
1920; Population of the US nearly triples, 26Mil new immigrants.
Peaks in 1909, about 12,000 people/day.
cities grew because of immigration, but also "in-migration" from rural areas of Latino Americans and American
Americans to urban cities.
“the walking city” more transportation, cities expand charters to growing
suburban regions, steel transformed formation & construction of buildings.
How The Other Half Lives
photojournalist, brought issue of bad life of tenements to Nat’l