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NR224 Final Exam Study Guide Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking Defined-definition: the ability to think in a systematic and logical manner with openness to question and reflect on the reasoning process-recognizing that an issue exists, analyzing information, evaluating information, and drawingconclusionsReflection-turning over a subject in the mind and thinking about it seriously-reflection is not intuitiveLevels of Critical Thinking-basic, complex, commitment-Components of critical thinking/critical thinking model:-specific knowledge base-experience-nursing process competencies-attitudes for critical thinking-professional standardsCritical Thinking Competencies-general critical thinking-scientific method-problem solving-decision making-specific critical thinking-diagnostic reasoning and interference-clinical decision makingNursing Process: PlanningCritical Thinking in Setting Goals & Expected Outcomes-goal: broad statement that describes desired change in patient’s condition-expected outcome: measurable change that must be achieved to reach a goalInfection Prevention and ControlBody Temperature Regulation-radiation: transfer of heat through surface of one object to surface of another withoutdirect contact-conduction: transfer of heat from one object to another through direct contact-convection: transfer of heat away by air movement-evaporation: transfer of het energy when a liquid Is changed to a gas (sweating)Standard Precautions-use hand sanitizer only when hands are not visibly soiled-use nonantimicrobial soap if spores are present (ex. with CDIFF)-use masks, eye protection and face shield when care might cause splashing or spraying of bodily fluids-clean gloves are worn when touching anything that has the potential to contaminate the hands of the nurse-place PPE in sturdy bag, tie knot tightly-a client does not need a private room unless he is unable to maintain appropriate hygienic practicesTransmission Precautions-airborne; requires private room, N95 masks with tuberculosis, negative pressure airflow room-droplet; requires private room or room with clients who have same disease, masks for providers/visitors-contact; requires private room or room with clients who have same infection, wear gloves & gown
VitalsTemperature Alterations-hyperthermia: 104F or higher-hypothermia: 95F or lowerRanges for BPNormal: <120, <80 Prehypertension: 120-139, 80-89 Stage 1 HT: 140-159, 90-99 Stage 2 HT:>160, >100Korotkoff Phases-phase 1: a sharp thump – systolic-phase 2: blowing or whooshing sound-phase 3: a softer thump than phase 1-phase 4: a softer blowing sound that fades-phase 5: silence– diastolicImmobility (Ch. 28)Musculoskeletal Changes-skeletal effects: disuse osteoporosis, joint contractureImplementation: Acute Care-metabolic-high protein, high calorie diet with vit B & C supp.