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Pharmacology FinalPharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics-interactions between living organisms and foreign chemicals-Pharmacokinetics- study of absorption, distribution, metabolism (biotransformation), and excretion ofdrugsA.Effect of drug toxicityPrimary Actionsa.Overdose; extension of the desired effectSecondary Actionsb.Undesired effects produced in addition to the pharmacologic effectHypersensitivity Reactionsc.Excessive response to primary or secondary effect of drugSigns and Symptoms of Organ Toxicity-CNS – altered LOC-Eyes- ocular damage-Ear- auditory damage, tinnitus-Mouth- Stomatitis, mucous membranes-Skin- hives, rash-Liver- fever, nausea, JAUNDICE, tea colored urine-Kidney- change in urinary pattern, increased BUN and creatinine (renal function test)-Bone marrow suppression – blood dyscrasia-TetrogenicityLaboratory TestingALT/AST – Liver function testBUN- Kidney function testAllergic Reactions•Anaphylactic Reaction- constricting bronchi, hives, rash, increased BP•Cytotoxic Reaction- antibodies attack antigens in blood, CBC, liver function test •Serum Sickness Reaction- antibodies in blood damage various tissues, swollen lymph nodes, fever•Delayed Allergic Reaction- antibodies bound to WBC, rash hives, swollen jointsPrinciples of Anti-Microbial Therapy1.Bacteriostatic vs Bacteriocidal-Bacteriocidial- kill the cell-Bacteriostatic- prevent reproduction of the cell2.Principles of Culture and Sensitivity-Culture- identification of pathogen-Sensitivity- identifies pathogen and appropriate drug for treatment3.Indications and Uses
Decrease the population of the invading bacteria to a point where the human immune system can effectively deal with the invader4.PENICILLIN Core Drug Knowledge– bactericidal, interfere with bacterial cell wallAdverse Effects- GI tract, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Core Patient VariableHealth Teaching & Nursing Intervention Asses RESPIRATORY function, abdominal and renal function, C&SComplete full course of antibiotics5.ISONIAZIDCore Drug Knowledge- antimycobacterial, kills TB and LeprosyAdverse Effect- peripheral neuropathyCore Patient VariableNursing InterventionCNS dysfunction, respiratory renal and hepatic function test, Culture and sensitivity testGive vitamin B66.CLOTRIMAZOLECore Drug Knowledge- Azoles / antifungalIndications and Uses-binds to sterols and can cause cell death, inhibit glucan synthesisused to treat fungal infectionTetrogenic Antiinflammatory Drug and Pain Medications7.ASPIRIN- Treats inflammatory conditions, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-thrombotic, anti-analgesicCore Drug Knowledge– prevents conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin -Contraindication and Precaution– bleeding disorders, skin lesions, impaired renal functionSALICYLISM- 20-25G DOSE IN ADULT and 4G in childrenSSx: hyperpnea, tachypnea, hemorrhage, excitement, confusion, pulmonary edema
-Adverse Effect– BLEEDING, ringing in the ears, tinnitusPetechiae