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Confucianism andDaoismEALC275/CWL311 FA20191
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Confucianism in East Asia4551 BCE - 479 BCEConfucius’ lifetime206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E.(Han dynasty) Confucianism isadopted as official state credo in China372 CEA Confucian Academy is established in theGoguryeo kingdom in northern Korea.6thc. CE.Confucianism is introduced to Japan from theBaekje kingdom of Korea
Confucius’ lifeKong Zi/Kong Qiu (551-479 BC)Born in Lu, a small state inpresent-day Shandong provinceA teacher all his life, hewandered around, offering hisservices as an advisor to rulers.Never succeeded in having histeachings put into practice.5
Timeline of Chinese history(Five founding emperors)2100-1600B.C.Xia Dynasty1600-1050B.C.Shang Dynasty1046-256B.C.Zhou(Chou)DynastyWestern Zhou (1046-771 B.C.)Eastern Zhou(771-256 B.C.)Spring &Autumn(770-475 B.C.)The order of theZhou is fallingapartWarring States(475-221 B.C.)221-206 B.C.Qin Dynasty: unified China6
Eastern ZhouSpring and Autumn Period771-476 BCWarring States Period475-221 BC7
Confucius’ World: the Spring and Autumn Period (771-476)Diminishing power of the ZhouGrowing number of independent statesWeak kingsPower in hands of dukesConstant warfare/instability- states at war with each other- inner succession strifeA time of great philosophical activity(“The 100 Hundred Schools of Thought”)8
The Analects論語Confucius’ teachings were collected and recorded by hisdisciples about 100 years after his deathThe Title,Lunyu, literally “the sayings”Fragmented conversations and sayings(not a formal treatise)9
The problem faced by Confucius and his contemporariesHow do we bring order back to theland? How do we put an end to theseemingly endless chaos and warand bring back harmony?10
The Solution:A moral code requiring both personaleffort and the cooperation of allmembers of society.Individual ethical behavior+social cooperation= peaceful and harmonious society11
Junzi(君子): the gentlemanConfucius’ ideal personFully moral (conscious of rightand wrong, always choosesright)Emphasis on self-education(“By nature men are prettymuch alike; it is learning andpractice that set them apart”(VI:23 [p. 23])Seeks the good of others12
Key Virtuesren =benevolence(alsotranslated “humaneness” and “caringfor others”)“[…] Do not do to others what you would not wantothers to do to you” – (XII: 2; p. 26)“The humane man, desiring to be established,seeks to establish others; desiring himself tosucceed, he helps others to succeed” (VI:28; p. 26)(we will see that this caring for others and puttingothers first is important for government, too)13
Key Virtuesyi =righteousness,justiceone’s moral sense, the abilityto recognize what is right andgood in a situationSelf-restraintSelf-controldoing one’s duty14
Key Virtuesxiao:filial pietyRespect for and devotion toone’s parents(Reciprocity: honoringparents is giving back forwhat they have given you)15

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Term
Fall
Professor
DAVIDGOODMAN
Tags
Chinese philosophy, Analects,

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