Study Guide for Argumentation Final

Study Guide for Argumentation Final - Pre-Midterm Material...

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Pre-Midterm Material Argument: a set of statements in which a claim is made, support is offered for it and there is an attempt to influence someone in a context of disagreement, more about agreement than disagreement Wenzel’s Three Perspectives on Argument: 1. Logic: argument is a product follow rules come to a conclusion 2. Dialectic: argument is a procedure something that we go through, exchange of ideas 3. Rhetorical: argument is a process argument is engaged in everyday Claim: expressed opinion or conclusion that the arguer wants accepted Evidence: facts or conditions that are objectively observable, beliefs or statements generally accepted as true by the recipients or conclusions previously established Reasoning: rational link between the evidence and the claim and authorizes the step we make when we draw a conclusion, connection between the claim and the evidence, often inferred
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Level of Dispute: imaginary line that separates what is accepted by the audience from what is not accepted, tells what we agree/disagree on Brockreide’s Characteristics of Argument: A. An inferential leap from existing beliefs to the adoption of a new belief B. Perceived rationale to support the leap good reasoning C. A choice among 2 or more competing claims D. Regulation of uncertainty E. Willingness to risk confrontation need balance F. Frame of reference shared optimally background assumptions must be shared in order for argument to occur Sphere’s of Argument 1. Personal- subject matter, range of claims, nature of evidence, rules, time limits etc. arranged by disputants 2. Technical- subject matter, range of claims, nature of evidence, rules, time limits, etc. decided by specialized community of arguers
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3. Public- subject matter, range of claims, nature of evidence, rules, time limits, etc. decided by larger community and its traditions **arguments move among spheres Argument Fields: sociological contexts for arguments and are marked by patterns of communication that participants in argumentative dispute can recognize, ex: law, business, art Identify fields by their characteristics: 1. Human creations 2. Developed by people with shared goals 3. Develop specialized language and rules (jargon) 4. People can belong to many fields 5. Fields survive only as long as people want them to Factual Propositions: 1. Cause: attempts to establish a casual claim between one thing and another aka relational or predictive claims
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2. Conjecture: attempts to discover what happened aka historical factual claims 3. Definition: what do we call this, always about the existence of something, existence of a relationship, does a cause b?
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