Weather Exam 1 Study Guide - ATOC 1050 Section 1(Keen Exam...

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ATOC 1050 Section 1 (Keen) Exam 1 Review Chapter 1: Properties of the Atmosphere Temperature  What is temperature? A measure of the average kinetic energy (speed) of air molecules Faster the speed, higher the temperature Temperature scales. F, C, K C= (F-32)/ 1.8 K=C+273.15 F used for surface air data Variation across the planet and from season to season. Northern Hemisphere summer the Earth’s axis tilts so that the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere faces the sun , Direct sunlight on the Northern poles all day long, middle latitudes have long days and short nights/ opposite is true in the Southern Hemisphere Northern Hemisphere winter North Pole faces away from the sun , northern poles receive no sunlight at all , middle latitude the days are short and the nights are long /opposite occurs in Southern Hemisphere What causes the seasons? The tilt of the Earth’s axis Amount of atmosphere that the sun’s rays pass through/pass through less air molecules in summer due to steep angle Vertical profile of temperature in the atmosphere.
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Troposphere- temperature decreases with with height Stratosphere- temperature increases with height Mesosphere- temperature decreases with height Thermosphere- temperature increases with height Layers of the atmosphere – troposphere and stratosphere. Troposphere- the composition of the air is consistent, temperature decreases with height, most weather occurs here Stratosphere- layer above the troposphere where temperature increases with height due to the absorption of UV radiation by ozone in that layer, storms can not penetrate into this atmospheric level The tropopause and changes with latitude Tropopause- boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere, slopes downward from the tropics to the poles, tropopause is higher in the tropics therefore tropical storms are much deeper than storms at middle and polar latitudes Pressure  What is pressure? The force applied by air on a unit of area of surface, equivalent to the weight of a column of air above a unit area How does pressure change as you go up through the atmosphere? Pressure decreases with height Average sea level pressure (psi, in Hg, millibars, tons per square meter) 14.7 psi/ 29.92 HG/ 1013 millibars/ 10 tons per square meter Typical range of sea level pressure.
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Varies the same for everyone Typical pressure in Boulder. Moisture  Humidity variables: vapor pressure, saturation vapor pressure, relative humidity, dewpoint temperature Vapor Pressure: the force per unit area applied by only the water vapor molecules Saturation Vapor Pressure: Vapor pressure at which the atmosphere becomes saturated Relative Humidity: the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere relative to the atmosphere’s capacity for moisture at a given temperature (vapor pressure/saturation vapor pressure) x 100% Dewpoint Temperature: the temperature at which air will become saturated if it is cooled at constant pressure with no change in its moisture content What can cause saturation vapor pressure to change?
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