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midterm study guide 2008 - 1 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE...

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MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE Anthropology 158-001 The Modern Corporation: From the East India Company to Wal-Mart Winter 2008 Matthew Hull 224A West Hall [email protected] I FUNDAMENTALS A. History of the corporation Institutional predecessors to the modern corporation 1. universitites 2. municipalities 3. trade/craft guilds 4. religious orders Benedictines Who the Benedictines were, what the major features of this order were, and how this order related to the church. East India Company How the EIC was formed, basic terms of its charter, what were the interests of major parties in forming the Company What the basic organization and activities of the EIC were How the economic relationship between Europe and Asia changed between 1600 and 1870 and how it was related to the EIC. Colonial Corporations London Company vs. the Plymouth Company --areas of operation --membership: how people became members and what the people who were members were like --goals, especially, business model --how the governance structures and politics of these corporations relate to the political arrangements that emerged in the colonies: custom vs constitution social contract two chambers 1
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B. General features of corporations Davis’s distinction between social form and social function Davis’s account of the essential features of corporations 1. associate activity 2. approval/creation by superior entity (state, church) relations among members of corp group approved/created by state state/church: primary, sovereign group corporation as a “derivative subordinate group” 3. voluntary inception, compulsory endurance members agree to join state compels the unity 4. autonomy, self-sufficiency and self-renovation —controls form/funcition, no interference from other persons, groups, state --self-sufficiency—no help/interference from others --renovations—renew membership, still needs to be group even as corporation --with limitations on autonomy, corporation looks like government administrative body 5. compulsory unity corporations as “little republics”, republics as “big corporations” (compulsory unity) corporations act and are acted upon as a unit— note not natural person/individual charter specifies means of determining group-will “artificial person”—legal fiction, members bear responsibility for corp’s effects limited liability not essential to corporate form 6. motive is private, particular or local interest, whether political, social, religious, economic 7. functions are public and appropriate for associate activities --social functions generally seen as serving welfare of public --function seen by state/church as better performed by associate than by individual activity, especially before 1830 Davis’s account of the historical political relationship between superior and subordinate bodies Do the cases of the Benedictines, American colonial corporations, and the EIC support Davis’s story about relations of subordinate/superior bodies?
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