Physiology Exam Study Guide.docx - PCB STUDY GUIDE 1 Physiology Final Exam Study Guide By Lucas Gomes Coelho de Oliveira PCB STUDY GUIDE 2 Homeostasis

Physiology Exam Study Guide.docx - PCB STUDY GUIDE 1...

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PCB STUDY GUIDE 1 Physiology Final Exam Study Guide By Lucas Gomes Coelho de Oliveira
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PCB STUDY GUIDE 2 Homeostasis Muscle tissue o Skeletal: voluntary muscle o Cardiac: involuntary o Smooth: found in the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs Nerve tissue o Brain = CNS o Spinal cord =CNS o Nerves = PNS o Composed of neurons and neuroglia Epithelial tissue o Forms the membranes that cover body surfaces o Lines the insides of hollow organs and glands o Simple epithelium: one layer, specializes in the transport of substances o Stratified epithelium: multiple layers, provides protection Connective tissue o Matrix made up of protein fibers, extracellular material, and specialized cells o 4 types: Connective tissue proper Cartilage Bone Blood An organ is composed of two or more tissues, group of organs = organ system Homeostasis: dynamic constancy in body’s internal environment o Internal environment: extracellular fluid (67%) o External environment: the space surrounds the body (33%) The body maintains homeostasis through feedback systems o Receptor -> control center -> effector o Most controlled variables in the body are regulated by a negative feedback system CELLS
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PCB STUDY GUIDE 3 Plasma membrane o Phospholipid bilayer o Restricts the movement of water, water-soluble molecules and Ions o *Phospholipids and proteins are not trapped in the membrane, but constantly move laterally = “Fluid mosaic model” Nonpolar end = tails (hydrophobic, lipid portion) Polar end = head (hydrophilic, phosphorous end) o Small hydrophobic substances like gases (O and CO2) pass through the bilayer freely and small lipid-soluble molecules o Small hydrophilic substances will need the help of membrane proteins to pass through Interstitial fluid = extracellular fluid + blood plasma Phagocytosis = cell eating (outside) o Bacteria, dead cells, or other organic materials get engulfed by pseudopods which then fuse together to form a food vacuole o Engulf whole particle to be broken down inside the cell Vacuole then fuses with a lysosome, and the material is digested Endocytosis = furrows inward to bring in the substance (inside) o 2 types: Pinocytosis: nonspecific (liquid) Ingests particles that are already broken down Receptor-mediated endocytosis: specific Has receptor proteins in the membrane that will bind to the substance to be brought in
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PCB STUDY GUIDE 4 Exocytosis: large cellular products (proteins) are moved out of the cell o When intracellular vesicle joins with the plasma membrane Cytoplasm = liquid that organelles float on o Cytoskeleton = provides structure 3 parts (in order from smallest to biggest): Microfilaments: helps generate movements, provides mechanical support, and forms microvilli (which increase surface area for chemical reactions and rapid diffusion) Intermediate filaments: help position organelles, and attach cells to one another Microtubules: determines cell shape, movement of organelles (found in cilia and flagella) o
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