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Unformatted text preview: PCS 119: 02.28.08 Possible Response to Threat: Unilateral (transparency, confidence- building measures, national regulatory commissions [Schwartz paper]) Multilateral (ex: WHO and OIE [ Office International des Epizooties] and their biosecurity guidelines (5); Australia Group) • Guidelines = nonbinding so how efficient can it be? o OIE: international organization for animal health o Australia group- an informal agreement of 40 nations that have bio capabilities and they harmonize under the Australia Group-export control group Developing nations say there is a restriction on trade and therefore development—its is a power issue o Gentlemen agreements: Exclusive multilateralism: Australia Group (bio + chemical weapons), Nuclear Supplier group (nuclear materials), Waasenaar Arrangement (missile technology) Nonbinding o Treaties: goal for universal aspiration/membership it binds everyone However there is a challenge with universal targeting tool too many viewpoints and not enough time/ scope of participation is a real challenge (esp for nations that want nice and neat formats like the US) INCLUSIVE MULITALTERALISM: NPT, BWC, CWC Legal (treaties, SC Res 1540 [crim inalization]) o SC Res 1540 : called upon all countries to crim inalize WMD activities undertaken by nonstate actors ie so called terrorists o Q: if you are an attorney for state dept and you are asked to justify the Livermore bio defense how would you argue? (sample m idterm question) State supported therefore do not go against the SC 1540 Milit ary (interdiction, bio-defense) o Interdiction : military intervention you intervene for instance stopping boats, searching and seizing military materials (PSI proliferation security initiative—interdiction effort to force interdiction o But on international waters it is illegal you are not supposed to stop the ships sailing under the flag of another nation on the high sea...
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- Spring '08